# April 12, 2018 – joyceanndavis

Day: April 12, 2018

Deaf Like Me

Deaf Like Me

Takia Clayton 4/15/ 2010 ASL Research Paper Deaf Like Me By Thomas S. Spradley James P. Spradly Epilogue By Lynn Spradley Deaf Like Me is a story compiled together by Thomas and James Spradley. It is a compelling story about two hearing+ parents struggling to cope with their daughters overwhelming deafness. This powerful story expresses with simplicity the love, hope, and anxieties of all hearing parents of deaf children. In the epilogue, Lynn Spradley, herself, now a teenager thinks back about different times in her life growing up deaf.

She reflects upon her education, her struggle to communicate, and the discovery that she was the inspiration and the main focus of her father’s and uncle’s book collaboration. Deaf Like Me is a moving and inspiring, must read for every parent, relative, and friend of deaf children everywhere. Lynn is her name, the child that was hoped to be the most perfect baby for the most perfect family. Lynn’s mothers Louise was struck with the German measles when she had just became pregnant with Lynn but wasn’t sure wether or not Lynn would have the disease as well.

When Lynn was born Louise was hoping for her baby to be healthy. As time went by Louise was thrilled watching as her healthy beautiful baby girl was growing. It was not until Lynn was about 3 months old that Louise began to question that maybe something was wrong with Lynn. As Thomas Spradley tells the story from his accounts he Says, it wasn’t until 3 months later on the 4th of july had he noticed a possible problem with his daughter. Louise, their son Bruce, the grandparents and baby Lynn had gone to the 4th of July celebration parade. This parade was exciting and filled with noise.

Yet in the midst of all the Fire engines sounding, crowds yelling and cheering loudly and loud booms and bangs from all the fireworks going off when Louise noticed baby Lynn never flinched and the noise didn’t appear to bother her any. After Louise’s discovery, for months for months after tried many other self test to test her daughters hearing. To Louise self testing was a hit and miss because at times it would work while other times the results would not be adequate. It was unsuccessful because it was not really proving whether or not their daughter can hear. Concerned, they took Lynn to the doctor.

The doctor explains to them that, although they were anxious that they couldn’t test Lynn until she was at least 2 years old. Not happy with the doctor failing to diagnosis, Louise pressed on and got a second opinion. The at the new doctor is where Louise found out that she was definitely deaf. Louise disheartened by the news did what she thought was to be medically best for her daughter, and had hearing aids made for Lynn. Yet still teaching Lynn to lip read so that she can be oral. Through the years with lots of practice Lynn became very skilled in lip reading. Lynn did become a very good lip reading after a while.

Louise was informed by doctors and Friends not to use gestures or sign to Lynn but to only talk to her and treat her as a normal child so that she someday may become oral and learn to speak. Lynn now at age 5 still could not talk as they expected. From the ages of 3 to 5, Lynn had now been enrolled in an oral school. Lynn loved attending although after a while she began to have problems. Because she could not talk she had no way of communicating. Because of this, Lynn began to have an attitude with her school mates by bullying them, pushing, hitting them. As Lynn got older her problems were just at school but at home too.

A lot of the time Louise and Thomas, both had trouble understanding what it was Lynn wanted or had asked for, which cause to throw terrible tantrums which led Lynn into fits of rage. In rebellion, Lynn had even stopped learning new words to lip read. With all the signs in Thomas and Louise’s face proving that this oral type teaching that they assumed was best for their child was proved to be ineffective. However, even with this knowledge Tom and Louise stilled attempted to be ignorant towards their daughter’s disability. The strongly believed they did not want to teach her “animalistic gestures. “

Around the time Lynn was 5, By the time Lynn was 5 years of age, Louise received some mail on Volta Review and the notice caught her attention. Interested in meeting people struggling with the same issue, Louis went to place to meet with parents that were meeting about their methods of teaching. These parents were giving one another advice on what should be done to help their kids. During the meeting a man stood up, One person stood up and announced himself to be deaf since the age of 6 but before that he was hearing. He said because lost his hearing at age 6 it was easier for him to make use of oral speech.

He went on to explain that it is not easily the same for someone who is born deaf to pick up. As he spoke his speech wasn’t too clear but they understood his words. He spoke in support for the use of sign language as a means of communication with each other. He expressed to the group that if it wasn’t for an interpreter there with him, he wouldn’t understand everything that was said at this meeting. He posed a question to the parents asking “How can a child ask questions or tell their parents how their day went at school with no method of communication? This guys speech made Louise rethink her views on the use of sign language.

After the meeting, Louise began to use sign language with Lynn. As Lynn learned to sign Louise learn to accept her child the way she was. Louise then realized that communication with your hands is a way better than just the use of oral. I feel that this book is a powerful explanation of one family’s struggle. I like this book because it did not sugar coat Louise true feeling towards what was happen to her daughter. To find out that your child has a disability is not easy thing to swallow. It not easy because not only does your lifestyle change your whole family’s lifestyle has to change and learn to accept.

In this book Lynn’s mother’s battle was with changing her lifestyle to fit the needs of her daughter. Even though she might have felt she was doing what was in the best interest of the child it actually was a hindrance to the child. Americans who have no knowledge or awareness about specific cultures or lifestyles are bias and ignorant. That fact that she considered aborting her child bothered me to the upmost degree. The doctors did not say that is would grow to have a third arm but that he/ she could inherit some congenital imperfections.

Depending on the circumstance in my opinion is when someone should consider extreme methods. Another thing I did not like was that she called sign language animalistic gestures. To me that was selfish, But she did not want her child to be looked at as different. I also felt that it was a cop opts to try and expand her communication with her child. Overall this story Deaf Like Me was about a mother struggle to help her to deaf born child speak and be normal. Like her child this mother had to learn new ways of what normal was.

The Impacts of Technology and Globalisation on Buddhism

The Impacts of Technology and Globalisation on Buddhism

Over the past fifty years there has been a rapid increase in Buddhist adherents, this is due to the accelerated improvement in technology and the consequent elevation of globalisation. Buddhism is a wide spread, immensely populated religion that circumscribes a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, based on the teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha). Over time, the Buddhist environment has been affected by the diversity of cultures within societies which has implemented change within a person’s environment.

The documentary ‘Buddhism meets Technology- Digital democracy’, the article ‘Globalization and Buddhism-Alfred Bloom’ and the image of the Golden Buddha Phone … are examples that contribute to the impact that technology and globalisation have on Buddhism. Technology can be defined as an application of knowledge suited to meet an individual’s expectation. The documentary ‘Buddhism meets Technology – Digital democracy’ clearly identifies how technology has impacted Buddhism. Burmese Monk U Agga (leader of Burma’s 2007 Saffron Revolution), discusses the role that digital technology has depicted in the Burmese democracy movement.

Agga believes that is essential to keep up with the global cohort of technology as it allows for individuals to be notified on current issues and affairs’ surrounding cosmos and it’s also considered as a form of communication between individuals. The world is interconnected instantaneously through electronic devices such as television and the Internet. Agga is informing adherents in the macro world on the absence of peace and human rights that the monastery is faced with in the micro world; Burma. Through the use of technology entities from abroad were able to gain insight into the “terrible situation inside Burma” .

Witnesses are able to record what they have viewed and post it the internet (online) which is now estimated to be frequently used by 26. 6% of the world’s population daily, thus, allowing a demographic to achieve accessible resources worldwide. This is one of the implements of globalisation that allows persistent internet users to be knowledgeable on contemporary concerns regarding Buddhism. Globalisation is a term used to define a series of partially interlinked economic, technological, commercial, political, social and cultural processes, which have evolved throughout the past 20th century.

It is a significant proponent of Buddhism, attributable to the rapidly increasing population of adherents. The article ‘Globalization and Buddhism-Alfred Bloom’ discusses the positive and negative aspects that globalisation donates to Buddhism. Being Dependent on advancing countries leads to enormous debt for the underdeveloped nations and persistent political inequalities. It is prominent that third world countries that practice Buddhism have been affected by Globalisation; it has caused levels of unwanted anxiety for civilians as they strive for an occidental approach to their environment (westernisation).

Interdependence (pratitya-samutpadaz) is a core Buddhist belief as it “Increases the tendency to nationalism and ethnic divisions” and is also a “fundamental truth of life” . Advocates are starting to lose the central beliefs and importance of their faith; due to the dominating effect globalisation is having on society and Buddhists are succumbing to be interdependent on material objects rather than entities.

This article clearly highlights how globalisation has been caused by the way people socially interact and express their faith within Buddhism, as they are under an occidental influence. Developing advances in technology have attributed to the accomplishment of globalisation. Religion has been the obvious motivation for the unique design of the Golden Buddha phone. The use of 24Karat gold plating and Buddhist inscriptions clearly mimic a Buddhist monastery. It is a global attempt to have a new gimmick that many fanatical adherents will consider an essential item that declares their faith.

Customer Relationship Management

Customer Relationship Management

1. Introduction of the assignment Customer relationship management (CRM) is the process of acquiring, retaining & growing profitable customers and a comprehensive approach for expanding customer relationship. There are different between Marketing and CRM. Marketing is a process in selling of product meanwhile CRM is a multifaceted process, which is intended to allow business organization to better anticipate and match customer needs and desire. As long as people are doing the buying, people will be involved in selling.

Customer relationship management tools have been shown to help companies attain these objectives:[3] •Streamlined sales and marketing processes •Higher sales productivity •Added cross-selling and up-selling opportunities •Improved customer service, loyalty, and retention •Increased call center efficiency •Higher close rates •Better customer profiling and targeting •Reduced expenses •Increased market share •Higher overall profitability With a good CRM, businesses can expect to increase sales, reduce costs and improve cash flow.

The CRM provides business continuity and makes information a truly valuable business asset by centralizing all of your client information, sales opportunities, documents and communications history. CRM is an integrated information system that is used to plan, schedule and control the presales and post-sales activities in an organization. CRM embraces all aspects of dealing with prospects and customers, including the call centre, sales force, marketing, technical support and field service. The primary goal of CRM is to improve long-term growth and profitability through a better understanding of customer behaviour.

CRM aims to provide more effective feedback and improved integration to better gauge the return on investment (ROI) in these areas. Many companies today have become so large that is difficult for them to stay “customer-minded. ” It is easy for the company to get into the habit at looking purely at profits instead of the service that they are offering to their customers. Many of these companies are compartmentalized, and they are split into various departments. Customer relationship management has become a necessity for large corporations, as well as small businesses.

The company that doesn’t understand the power of CRM is unlikely to succeed in today’s competitive market. In today’s challenging economic climate, companies must not only “continuously improve” – but they must also “continuously reinvent” themselves. The minute a company stops growing, the competition starts catching up! “CRM applications are so hot because they enable companies to create strategies that focus the entire enterprise on serving customers,” AMR’s Peggy Menconi says. “Companies are realizing that they can increase earnings faster if they know their customers better.

If they have a better picture of their customers, they can tailor goods and services to them. They can cross-sell and up-sell to them. After all, it is a lot cheaper to sell more of your products to an existing customer than it is to find a new customer. ” 2. Company Background Malaysia Airlines (MAS) is the government-owned flag carrier airline of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and its secondary hub in Kota Kinabalu. It has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah International Airport in Subang, Selangor.

Malaysia Airlines started its operation on 1987 after the airline changed its name from Malaysian Airline System. It is founded in 1947 by Malayan Airways. Then, it transformed to Malaysian Airways due to Malaysia gaining its independence. After that, it changes its name once more to Malaysia-Singapore Airlines and thereafter ceased its operation. It was then divided into Malaysia Airlines and Singapore Airlines. From a small air service that began with a 5-seater twin engine Airspeed Consul in 1947, the Company connects 40,000 passengers daily to some 80 destinations worldwide.

Malaysia Airlines has grown into an award-winning airline with a fleet of more than 100 aircraft, servicing more than 110 destinations across 6 continents around the globe. Geographically, the company operates through Orient and North America, Europe and Middle East, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, Africa and South America. The Company operates in two business segments: Airline operation, which is engaged in the operation of aircraft for passenger, and Cargo services, which is engaged in the operation of aircraft for cargo and mail services.

MAS also engaged in the business of air transportation and the provision of related services including aircraft ground handling, aircraft leasing, aviation engineering, air catering, and tour operator operations. It has also restructured itself by spinning-off operational units as fully-owned subsidiaries, to maintain its core business as a passenger airline. Malaysia Airlines has over 20 subsidiaries, with 13 of them fully owned by Malaysia Airlines. Malaysia Airlines has two airline subsidiaries: Firefly and MASwings.

Firefly operates scheduled flights from its home base Penang International Airport which focus on tertiary cities, while MASwings focuses on inter-Borneo flights. Malaysia Airlines has a freighter fleet operated by MASKargo, which manages freighter flights and aircraft cargo-hold capacity for all Malaysia Airlines’ passenger flights. MAS Charter is another subsidiary of Malaysia Airlines, operating charter flights using Malaysia Airlines’ aircraft. After recovering from past losses, Malaysia Airlines is keen on merger and acquisition (M) activities: particularly airlines in the Asia Pacific region.

Malaysia Airlines was ranked second with score 88 in Aviation Week’s Top Performing Companies which accurately measures financial viability of an airline. Malaysia Malaysian Airline System Berhad is engaged in the business of air transportation and the provision of related services. The Company operates in two business segments: Malaysia Airlines has built up a strong brand name in the aviation industry for service and safety, coupled with numerous awards from international bodies such as Skytrax.

Malaysia Airlines is accredited by International Air Transport Association with IOSA (IATA Operational Safety Audit) for its operational safety practices. Additionally, the airline started Project Omega and Project Alpha to improve the company’s network and revenue management. Emphasis has been placed on six areas: pricing, revenue management, network scheduling, opening storefronts, low season strategy and distribution management. Despite all these achievements, the airline is still frequently the target of critics who often deride the carrier is lagging behind their competitors in the region.

This notion is not helped by the fact Malaysia Airlines has not made substantial investments in customer related matters compared to say Thai Airways or Singapore Airlines. In the next section I will deliberate the barriers implementing and strategizing of CRM in MAS. 3. Barriers in implementing and Strategizing CRM initiative in MAS The CRM initiatives often fail due to numerous external and internal factors. There are various barriers in implementing and strategizing CRM initiatives taken by MAS. The barriers are as follow: •Wrong customer profitability •Wrong campaign to wrong people No sufficient budget •Lack of training/knowledge/staff not well train •Wrong definition •Company politic •Poor planning •Bad advice 3. 1 Wrong customer profitability At its core, CRM is about data–customer, product, inventory and transaction. This is a huge amount of information that must be in the right place, in the right format, at the right time. Although a CRM initiative may have multiple vendors and timelines that take months or years to implement, the vast majority of enterprises pay no attention to the data that will support investments and systems. MAS must have a data-quality strategy.

A detailed understanding of their data- where to source it and what third-party data is required. Only when a foundation of good data has been built will enterprises find that subsequent investments will generate acceptable payback. Profitability group of customer can be built as below matrix diagram Matrix diagram All ProfitCD Not Profit (N/P)AB Not Loyal (N/L)Loyal A – N/P + N/L In A category, customer not affect to business. They can approach as per campaign 4. 1 (prospecting), see page 12 B – Loyal + N/P In this category, customer can approach by doing campaign as no 4. (cross sell), see page 13 C – Profit + N/L For these category MAS can introduce campaign as no 4. 3 (loyalty) or 3. 2 (Win back or save) to make them loyal. See page no 13 D – Loyal + Profit Campaign no 4. 4 can implement to this category customers. See page no 14 Much research has been carried out into customer profitability and the conclusions are consistent (see chart below). The longer a customer is with you the better the profitability and the chart clearly shows that after the second year you start to make money from cross-sales, repeat orders, referrals etc. Source: http//::malaysiaairlines. istedcompany. com/misc/ac 3. 2 Wrong campaign to wrong people CRM is implemented for the enterprise, not the customer. CRM is about people and, in particular, the customers. That applies if the customer is a consumer, an enterprise, or a partner. Therefore, CRM has to make the lives of those customers better. For example, sales representatives need to know about current service issues and relevant marketing promotions before attempting to cross-sell to a specific customer. Marketing managers should be able to leverage customer information from sales and service to better target campaigns and offers.

And support agents require quick and complete access to a customer’s sales and service history. They have to involve employees and customers throughout the CRM process to ensure that their interests are represented in the project. 3. 3 No sufficient budget Even if you are a small one-person company and have a very small budget for CRM, there’s no excuse for overlooking CRM entirely. Establishing good customer service is exactly what will turn your small company into a larger company. Happy customers simply mean more referrals, more business, and a larger profit.

An example, Malaysia Airlines was loss in 2005, and with only a few months’ liquidity on hand it launched a comprehensive and ambitious ‘Business Turnaround Plan’, with the focus on financial survival in 2006, profit generation in 2007, and profitable growth in 2008 and beyond as described in table 1. 1. As part of the plan, the airline issued a competitive tender for a new Passenger Services System (PSS) which would enable Malaysia Airlines to offer passengers a more convenient, efficient and ‘hassle free’ travelling experience in a cost effective manner. Table 1. 1 Source: http//::malaysiaairlines. istedcompany. com/misc/ac 3. 4 Lack of training/knowledge/staff not well train CRM is an opportunity to put powerful tools into the hands of employees; it should not weaken the customer experience by short changing employees with poor training on those tools. The employee should reinforce CRM and vice versa. CRM’s potential should be fulfilled at the point of sale or service. MAS had educated their staff on the CRM initiative and train them on CRM tools and technology to enable them to communicate with customers more effectively and, as a result, happier and more-profitable customers.

Malaysia Airlines’ cabin crew is acknowledged as the world’s best and was awarded the World’s Best Cabin Staff, 2007 by Skytrax. 3. 5 Wrong definition CRM strategy and vision need to define what customers experience at each touchpoint, and how will they be handled at each touchpoint. The vision needs to be clear to everyone. A major pitfall occurs when your business constituents have differing expectations of CRM’s benefits. Sharing a common vision is key. Malaysia Airlines’ vision is to become “An Airline of Excellence”.

Describes how the airline reinforced the Total Quality philosophy in its service culture and improved customers’ perception of its quality as a strategy to achieve this aim. 3. 6 Company politic By politics, the tendency of one organization to worry more about its individual CRM needs and less about enterprisewide CRM requirements. In a political enterprise, every organization believes they “own” the customer and, therefore, will not share data or support other channels. CRM is suboptimal, and can only yield departmental efficiencies and benefits.

CRM is about enterprises forming enterprise-level relationships with customers, and allowing individual organizations to maintain control of individual interactions. Successful CRM starts from the top. In this manner, the Government of Malaysia appointed Dato’ Sri Idris Jala as the new CEO on 1 December 2005 till August 2009, to execute changes in operations and corporate culture. He was choose due to excellent contribution in Shell Malaysia before. 3. 7 Poor planning No one builds a house or a bridge, or anything that is the least-bit complex, without a plan.

Yet most enterprises still undertake CRM with no idea of what they are hoping to build in the long term. It’s recommended that enterprises create a three-year plan for CRM initiatives, then tactically invest toward that vision. MAS has appointed one of IT software System (SITA) for future strategy such as programme to lower costs, keep fares competitive, increase revenue, and keep delivering five-star products and services”. As the speed of business has increased and competition grown, good CRM software will MAS and his clients survive the current economic crisis.

Now it’s a business necessity. Marketing Strategy – A comparison Table 1 shows the marketing strategy applied by both carriers. Both have positioned themselves as LCC. AirAsia (2008) focuses on low fares with no frills and Firefly maintains a Community Airline tagline. http://fyi-penang. blogspot. com/2009/04/firefly-marketing-analysis-discussion. html A SWOT(Strengths, weakness, Opportunities, Threats) Analysis is used to evaluate a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

This report examines MAS key business structure and operations, history and products, and it provide summary analysis of key revenue lines and strategy. Use this report to understand the internal and external factors that affect MAS’s performance in achieving its business goals. 3. 8 Bad advice To avoid the pain of revision, some companies don’t take the opportunity to re-engineer and optimize their processes. They look to CRM as a patch rather than an opportunity from the ground up to increase customer satisfaction, revenue, service and overall productivity.

MAS suffered high losses over the years due to poor management and fuel price increases. Under Dato’ Sri Jala Idris leadership, Malaysia Airlines unveiled its Business Turnaround Plan (BTP) in February, 2006, which highlighted low yield, an inefficient network and low productivity (overstaffing), the airline posted a record profit of 851 million Ringgit in 2007, ending a series of losses since 2005. In the next section I will deliberate the four type of CRM which can be implemented in MAS in order to manage current and new customers. 4. Four type of CRM

The four types of CRM programs enable the company to win back customers who have defected or are planning to, create loyalty among existing customers, to up sell or cross sell services to these customers and to prospect for new customers. The four of CRM are as below: •Prospecting •Win back or save •Loyalty •Cross sell / up sell 4. 1 Prospecting By doing the prospecting means you will get profit and your competitor will going to lose the customer. The effort to win new or first time customer, following campaign MAS can introduced such as •Contest Sticker •New counter •Pop up in internet •Extra flight during festive 4. 2Win back or save The process of convincing a customer to stay with the organization at the point they are discontinuing service or convincing them to rejoin once they have left. To win back the customer, MAS can extended their customer by doing the following campaign for examples: Win back •Add new destination and joining with tourism agent •Introduce variety of food •Discount during festive •Introduce e-ticketing at Auto Teller Machine Free shutter within 50 km Save •Implement variety payment facilities such as credit card & bank card. •To extend the validity of ticket •Upgrade class •Send messages or email about new product •ccc 4. 3Loyalty Loyalty is built on relationships developed through customer’s experience when she interacts with your company. Loyalty is the like hood that current customers will buy from you again, rather than from a competitor, whenever she needs new or additional products that you sell.

In order to maintain customer, MAS can manage following sample: •Complimentary in flight – refreshment with light snack •Door gift •Rewarding point •VIP service •Cargo guarantee 4. 4Cross sell / Up sell Cross sell is about suggesting extra items to the customer. To up sell is the practice of suggesting cost products and services, generally of a better quality, to a customer interested in a purchase. Efficient cross-sell and up-sell strategies are developed as per the requirements of the marketplace, employees’ skills and the type of customer interactions.

MAS able to enhance their strategy to attract customer such as for Cross sell •Selling new package – flight+hotel+shopping •Introduce accessories such as meal, t-shirt & etc •Money changer at airport with reasonable charge •Add more important or attractive destination •Cargo guarantee Cross sell •Introduce new comfortable aircraft •From local to oversee trip •New e-ticketing counter such as at petrol station •Upgrade blue to platinum card – offer long distance journey •Room waiting user friendly 5. Criteria used by customers in evaluating the channels in CRM

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is one of the hot buzzwords of this business age. The objectives of a CRM strategy must consider a company’s specific situation and its customers’ needs and expectations. Information gained through CRM initiatives can support the development of marketing strategy by developing the organization’s knowledge in areas such as identifying customer segments, improving customer retention, improving product offerings (by better understanding customer needs), and by identifying the organization’s most profitable customers.

Beginning in 2007, the rapid growth in social media and social networking forced CRM product companies to integrate “social” features into their traditional CRM systems. For that reason organization using various channel as a platform to tackle customer. Communication technology is value added and very important in global business that enable organization to extend CRM. Organization used this technology as a channel to interact, derive information very quickly and attract customer to buy their product. In this ay, companies will be able to measure the value of customer intention The channels use must include the following characteristics: •User friendly •Availability – 24 hours service •Complete information •Enable interaction with customer •Trustworthy •Affordable/immediate The channels used by MAS as following features •Electrictronic multimedia such as televisyen, radio, internet, sms •Printing media such news paper, booklet •Roadshow 6. Conclusion In conclusion, successful CRM begins with vision and ends with technology which includes travel agents, airline partners and passengers.

Effective CRM also must cut across different departments and product offerings. Implementing an effective CRM solution is not complex. Adequate planning, effective communication, stakeholder involvement and mistake avoidance will ensure that your initiative gets off the ground easily, and places you squarely in the exalted ranks of successful CRM implementers. There is little doubt that the concept of CRM is a vital element in success, but to ensure that success it must be a business-lead issue, not IT-driven and must permeate the strategic and marketing thinking of an organisation.

Key steps for success: •Follow a plan that clearly relates the CRM to strategy and the marketing functional plan; •buy-in is essential; •it needs to be business lead •complete business planning before systems are considered •input is required from business, IT and customers; and •to ensure that the programme is managed properly (see diagram). Before starting a CRM initiative it must be clear what the benefits will be, how they will be realised and what the implications are for an organisation. If

‘Belonging’ Essay

‘Belonging’ Essay

Belonging is dependent on the perspective of the individual Belonging is an inevitable human condition that empowers an individual for better or sometimes for worse. It is a concept that deals with the human need or desire to feel a connection with a person, place, community or thing. Perceptions and ideas of belonging, or of not belonging, vary within each individual and can be shaped by personal experiences and relationships.

There are many ways through which an individual can belong to a relationship, however some find it difficult to establish similarities in identity with others, so must suppress their individuality in order to belong or else completely withdraw. While there are texts that explore many aspects of belonging, there are some that also represent this choice not to belong, or barriers that prevent belonging. Such texts include the film Into the Wild directed by Sean Penn, the poems I Had Been Hungry All the Years and This Is My Letter To the World by Emily Dickinson.

In the film Into the Wild, Christopher McCandless is a young man whose perspective of belonging within society has been altered by the dysfunctional and materialistic relationship of his parents. The fragile nature of his family’s relationship is portrayed in the dinner scene, which is muted and employs an unstable hand held camera that emphasises the tension and separation that is present. As a direct result of his experiences of dysfunctional relationships, Christopher develops a negative view of society as a whole. ”You know, about getting out of this sick society…I don’t understand why people, why every person is so bad to each other so often. ”’ Christopher’s individual perception of the way society works has been shaped by the relationships and experiences he has witnessed and gone through as a child. For this reason he perceives society as poisonous, and instead of trying hard to belong to this ‘sick society’, he chooses to escape. ‘”No longer to be poisoned by civilisation he flees, and walks alone upon the land to become lost in the wild. ’ In the film, Sean Penn depicts this view of an oppressive society that Christopher develops, using dark metaphors of conflict to strengthen this. For example, fence-posts are described as ‘black sword-tips’ and red tiles ‘hardened blood’. Throughout the film Into the Wild, the environment acts as a vehicle for belonging in which Christopher is able to understand the importance of connections between people and happiness. This is portrayed through a number of scenes of him in the environment which are shot in natural light, contrasting to the fluorescent lighting used in the civilized scenes.

This lighting technique reflects Christopher’s own views that the environment is a place where he can truly learn about belonging, something he couldn’t do whilst in his own fractured society. In the film Into the Wild the protagonist shows a preference for knowledge over belonging. ‘”Rather than love…give me truth”’ Christopher McCandless has learnt from previous experiences that love and relationships count for nothing unless there is truth. It is because of this lack of truth in society that he does not feel the need to belong within it.

However, after going on his journey and developing new relationships and experiences along the way, he regrets his decisions towards the end. This is seen through the director’s use of the diary to convey his thoughts. In an extreme close up, he writes ‘lonely’ slowly and deliberately, and underlines it to emphasise the strength of his sense of loneliness. The music is moving and poignant, highlighting his regret over his isolation. In addition, the final scene shows a sequence of rapid flashbacks showing characters with which he created relationships.

The voiceover is in second person ‘”What if I were smiling and running you’re your arms? ”’, stresses his regret at his refusal of connections. This use of voice over in addition to a positive number of images finishing with a still shot of Christopher, implies that our sense of belonging is important to both happiness and a sense of self. Christopher McCandless’s perspective on belonging has been shaped by his individual, negative experiences and dysfunctional relationships. In consequence he rejects the idea of belonging to such a society where these relationships exist.

However, after setting off on a journey where he creates new relationships and experiences in which beauty and truth are evident, he regrets his choice to seclude himself from society and the chance he had to belong. The poem I had been hungry all the years by Emily Dickinson portrays an outsider who yearns to belong. ‘I looked in windows, for the wealth I could not hope to own. ’ This could be read as a metaphor for the persona’s exclusion from society. The implications of the word wealth which she perceives others as having, is a reference to belonging within society.

There is a direct contrast between their wealth and her own condition, as she can’t hope to obtain it. This quotation also suggests that at this point in her experience, she thinks those who obtain such wealth are in a state that is preferable to hers. The speaker’s circumstances change so that she is able to have a ‘taste’ of belonging. However, now that she has experienced it she has learned that this ‘wealth’ is perhaps too great for her to handle. Dickinson compares her feelings about having “plenty” to the situation of a bush that naturally grew on the mountain being planted in the road. ‘Myself felt ill and odd, ?

As berry of a mountain bush ? Transplanted to the road. ’ This would not be a good environment for the bush as it isn’t likely to flourish in the road. Planting the bush suggests a permanent change, which we could also see as the permanence of the persona’s change from deprivation to plenty. The bush that grows from the berry is also in the wrong environment, or not in its natural place; in other words, the road is foreign or alien to it. This bush image could suggest that plenty is unfamiliar to the persona’s nature and her natural place is actually outside looking in through windows rather than being inside and belonging within society.

The speaker realises that she is no longer hungry, and that she no longer desires what she lacked “all the years,” now that it is available to her. Based on the knowledge acquired from the change in her status, she finally defines “hunger” as: ‘A way Of persons outside windows, The entering takes away. ’ Dickinson is describing that the desire to belong is taken away once a person actually experiences it. This experience of belonging in society has changed her views about what she actually desires and yearns for.

Here, the persona was first an outsider who finally experiences belonging and then realises it is not as good as she imagined. This can be contrasted with Christopher McCandless in the film Into the Wild as he experienced society and all its flaws primarily, and then went to find happiness alone. However Christopher and the persona in I Had Been Hungry All the Years both find, although at different stages and shaped by different experiences, that the cost of belonging in society is perhaps too great. The poem This Is My Letter to the World by Emily Dickinson explores the idea of alienation and not being accepted or belonging in society.

This poem could be read as a person who has waited so long for outside contact that she decides to complete the message for herself. ‘This is my letter to the world That never wrote to me,’ The speaker describes how the world has neglected her and thus she does not belong to society. Instead of waiting for society to recognize and accept her, she writes a message to the world in an attempt to make contact. In this way, the poem could be said to balance a love for seclusion with the desire for outside contact. The writer is unsure of where her message will end up, or who will read it in the future. Her message is committed To hands I cannot see;’ Although she does not know who will read her letter, it is assumed that it will be read by society in general. The persona hopes that she will not be judged, but accepted for the message she has delivered. ‘For love of her, sweet countrymen, Judge tenderly of me! ’ The love she has for nature has compelled her to write this message, and so she hopes that society can accept her love for nature and therefore understand why she had to deliver this message. This acceptance would ultimately lead to her belonging within society.

Belonging is a complex human condition that is perceived differently by every individual as a result of the different experiences we go through and the relationships we form. These experiences can develop the perceptions that individuals have on the concept of belonging. In the case of Christopher McCandless in the film Into the Wild and the persona of Emily Dickinson as shown through her poems I Had Been Hungry All the Years and This Is My Letter To the World, there is evidence of individuals who choose not to belong to society because of the negative outlooks that their experiences have given them.

As a result of this, they both isolate themselves from civilisation. The difference between these two individuals is that Emily Dickinson, after going through her new experience of belonging, comes to the conclusion that she does not need to belong within society. In contrast, Christopher McCandless goes through a journey of isolation and discovers all too late that ‘Happiness is only real if shared’. By Selina Meuross Word count: 1578

Competency Demonstration Report

Competency Demonstration Report

Competency Demonstration Report Career Episode 3 Introduction 1. This career episode took place in ‘date’. I was employed as an apprentice Electrical Engineer with ‘my company’ and studying for a Higher National Diploma in Electronics at ‘my college/university’. Background 2. I was in the final year of my Higher Diploma studying ‘course’. As part of the course it was necessary to identify and submit a project using electronic hardware. The nature of this project was to develop, build, test and present an electronic project that was software controlled by a programmable integrated circuit (PIC).

I designed and developed a working system that would automatically cover an outside seating area when rain was detected. I prepared and presented accompanying documentation and presented it to my tutor. I obtained technical information from manufacturer’s data sheets in order to carry out the design, programming and operation of the project. I used materials and parts which were either locally available or ordered on line. 3. I submitted my design to my tutor who confirmed the feasibility and criteria requirements would meet or exceed the course of decisions, taken in the design and introducing changes and improvements.

As the necessity of introducing some changes appeared often, we had to reconsider some decisions to meet requirements for cost, operation quality of equipment and materials, which were implemented in the design. 4. I completed the project within an agreed timescale of 14 weeks and also within my budget allocation of ? 100 UK Sterling. I also developed a first class presentation outlining the details of my project. I applied my computer skills in order to document my findings and also to carry out work to the highest quality. I presented the project using ‘Microsoft Power Point’ which I am proficient at.

I also used “MS Word” and “MS Excel” for documentation. I then completed a successful working model demonstration to fellow pupils, tutor and college engineering board. Personal Workplace Activity 5. During the development of this design I had a number of duties. These included; • • • • • • Design, manufacture and building of project. Utilising locally available materials. Testing the system and improving it. Completing project within an agreed timescale and budget Meeting all the evidence required for the project unit. Presenting of final project. 6.

The project unit was designed to tax my abilities and allow me to demonstrate my overall skills as a competent Engineer. I kept a project log which indicated what had been completed each week and what still had to be concluded. The log provided a useful technical record of my progress throughout the project and proved invaluable when writing my project. 7. The first part involved identification of the project and the nature of the problem I was involved with. I used resources available to me for research which included my tutor, library and colleague.

The selection of the project theme came from myself and was discussed further with my fellow engineer and my tutor. It had to involve the programming of a PIC controller and prove to a board of engineers that I had sound engineering knowledge. The project had to be achievable yet challenging and appeal to a certain customer. My tutor acted as a simulated customer, in this case a restaurant/cafe owner. 8. I drew up a plan of action and allocated timescales to the process. I used a Gantt chart to develop a project schedule which gave me a pictorial representation illustrating what process was going to happen and when it would occur.

It was necessary for me to regularly review my progress and to note down any problems which I could foresee. This allowed me to come up with solutions before the problems arose. 9. I completed a requirements analysis which detailed what I would provide and when it would be completed. I was going to provide a weather sensitive cover for an outside eatery. The project would be completed within six weeks and cost no more than 100 pounds. 10. Before manufacturing of the PCB I designed the project and carried out a system overview which illustrated the inter-relationships that exist between all the aspects of the system.

I carried out the required calculations which determined the specifications of certain components. After doing so I drew up a parts list and ordered the relevant parts. 11. While awaiting the arrival of ordered stock I took charge of the software development. The circuit involved low level programming ASM and interfacing to mains driven output. I used my knowledge in PIC programming to design a program in assembly language which would allow the circuit to function properly. 12. The following stage involved the building of the hardware.

I surface mounted the components onto a PCB board and connected the relevant components. The circuit comprised of a rain sensor (water sensor) which we used as an input to drive the canopy. A number of warning devices were installed to ensure the safety of customers. These were in the form of a flashing beacon and buzzer. I installed a master reset switch which allowed the device to return back to its original position. Fitting of an analogue to digital converter was needed to convert the readings from the sensing system. I also added a comparator which allowed me to compare the read values with a predefined value.

I installed a microprocessor system to read the output of the comparator and take appropriate action depending on the read value. A manual / automatic switch was also added to determine which mode the device would operate in. The system required three voltage supplies. A single phase 240v ac supply was needed for the motor, a 5v dc supply for the analogue to digital converter and microprocessor and a 24v dc supply for the sensor and hazard indicators. 13. The next phase involved the testing of the hardware and integration of the software. I tested the programming using MPLAB software.

This software allowed me to set up a watch window to let me observe the relevant outputs and toggling inputs. By manipulating inputs to the PIC I was able to see the program running correctly. A few minor problems such as short circuiting and dry joints occurred during assembly of the system. These problems were quickly overcome by re-soldering the connections. 14. The concluding part of the project was the final presentation. I presented the system in front of a group of engineering tutors. I used MS power point to present my drawings and schematics.

I displayed my findings and described how the system operated. After doing so I presented a demonstration of the circuit and proved that it was in correct working order. This fulfilled the objectives set to obtain the credit towards my Higher Diploma. Summary 15. The design, assembly and testing of the system met all the environmental protection and safety standards. I managed to calculate, estimate and select the appropriate materials used in the design of this project. The project proved a success and was merited by my tutor. All goals and requirements needed for the unit were met and completed successfully.