Day: April 10, 2018

Cultures Have Cannons, but a Multicultural Society or People Cannot Have Cannon.

Cultures Have Cannons, but a Multicultural Society or People Cannot Have Cannon.

Cultures have cannons, but a multicultural society or people cannot have cannon. A culture is a complex set of shared beliefs and values, and concepts which enables a group to make sense of its life and which provides it with directions for how to live. We live in a culture and culture is written into us in a process of internalisation. Australia is a melting pot of races, cultures and beliefs. This country was built by people from many different national backgrounds, and has followed an active policy of multiculturalism.

If Australia were have a multicultural canon it would be very complicated due to cultures accommodate a variety of values and beliefs, and if we could manage to have a multicultural canon there would be conflict about what value is better or which belief should we go by, disagreements will be involved and it will be very difficult to come to a conclusion, hence I agree with the statement that culture have cannons, but a multicultural society or people cannot have cannon.

A canon is a rule or body of rules and principles that are generally established as valid and fundamental in a field. My argument, is we cannot have a multicultural society or people due to all the disagreement and conflict that may occur which will turn into chaos. Hegel suggests there could be a multicultural society, which involves a clash between cultures-conflict and synthesis, however Plato suggests that a perfect ideal exists in which only some can reach that point.

Hegel and Plato both oppose my argument, they are for- there could be a multicultural canon but Hegel’s form is that people may argue for instance two people come up with two different ideas and in the end they combine and come up with a conclusion but form that conclusion another idea is inserted and it continues like a triangle, I agree with Hegel in that area but I don’t believe that we could conclude with a multicultural canon it will keep going and will never stop.

On page 230 “Philosophy and Ethics” the first pink box provides us with an aesthetic concept about an artwork that could be good because it is pleasurable during the 20th centaury, but pleasure has been replace by a perceived need to see some cognitive, moral or political benefit in art for it to be good, these benefits are good but are these part of aesthetic appreciation of art? This concept relates the issue of establishing a cultural canon in a multicultural context. A cultural canon s decided by individuals or the way they have been taught up, their values and beliefs apply to them in a good way but if you place their values and beliefs in a multicultural context it will not blend well because there are many values and beliefs that goes the same with the artwork if you replace it will cognitive, moral or political benefit into the context it will not blend because those benefits has nothing to do with how the artwork looks, an artwork is suppose to be pleasure to yourself not because of cognitive, more or political benefits but the way it looks.

This debate relates to the concept of judgment of taste by saying because of cognitive, moral or political benefit this artwork can be viewed in a pleasurable way but really that is not true, that is only a judgment of the values but not the artwork itself therefore just an unfair judgment that people agree to. After I read “Studying culture” and “how we see” I realized how this text adds complexity to the idea of having a national canon in a multicultural society.

One issue that adds complexity is that culture can be seen from three different angles: anthropology study of human culture), sociology (human actions) and literary theory (deals with the text). These three approaches bring out difficulty in all the areas or making a multicultural society because we have to view this from all the perspectives to make everyone happy and that is impossible due to everyone has different values and beliefs.

Another issue is how do we see a culture will often depend on our own background and the influences that we have been exposed to example some people may cricket may not be part of them due to the way they have been taught while growing up. The third issue is ideology it is like a lens which we view the world and this lens distorts the way we see and understand the world and events around us therefore it will be hard to get everyone’s view of the world and to make it into one.

In the end we all have the freedom to choose what we believe in and how we see things therefore it should not be one major canon in which we all have to agree to and most people would not want a multicultural canon due to these types of implications. The symbols and concepts communicated across cultures are what sports we are interested in, what we like to eat and how to dress ect. Fays ideas about culture and interpreting culture effect how we think about cultural canons and multicultural canons.

Fay says “a culture is a complex set of shared beliefs and values and concepts which enables to a group to make sense of its like and which provides it with directions of how we live” I agree with Fays explication because culture is complex. Fay also says that process of internalising the belief system gives us the basis of our own identity because identity is not something we can have in complete isolation forms other humans and that what makes us different.

He uses the example about learning a language, which languages can be modified over time example English back in the days it had a different dialect but after time we change that is the same with culture, cultures are always modified. Interpretation depends how you understand a situation or how you read it therefore Fays ideas effect how we think in a way that a multicultural canon would never be created due to the way we see things and how we see it and that over time all things change.

Namma Metro: a Study

Namma Metro: a Study

2009 Namma Metro – A Study Chinmay Centre for Budget & Policy Studies Namma Metro – A Study Foreword The Centre for Budget and Policy Studies has been examining government accounts to unravel the real priorities behind government policies. All governments make all kinds of promises. To keep a promise they must raise and spend money. This information is contained in budgets. What a government does, as opposed to what it says it is doing, can be gleaned from this source. But while a budget tells how money is raised [by taxes] and where it is spent, it does not tell us if the money is spent well or wisely.

That requires detailed information on how projects and programmes are decided upon and audit to see how they are spent. These are complex issues of political economy. The cost of the Bangalore Metro has been stated to be 6000 crores of rupees, but it is likely to be much more. This money has come from taxes we pay to the union, the state and the city corporation. It also has a loan component from a foreign agency. And it addresses a major issue in the city. There is little doubt that Bangalore needs a mass transit system; it should have got one twenty years ago.

Chinmay has documented the protest against the alignment of the Bangalore Metro in the Jayanagar area of Bangalore in mid 2009. He has attended many meetings, met many persons involved, and read the documents available. He has done a remarkable job of presenting an impartial record of what happened. This record merits careful study by all who wish to make an impact on the way large projects are designed and implemented in the country. The report, while detailed and informative, leaves many questions open. How was the Namma Metro designed?

Why was the original plan, approved in 2004, confined to the boundaries of the Bangalore of 1981? The north point was Yeshwantpur, near the Indian Institute of Science, and the south point was near Rajalakshmi Nursing Home in Jayanager. By 2004, the city had grown many kilometers on both these sides. The government claimed to have had public consultations. In some formal way this may be true, but the spirit of consultation—meetings in convenient locations, at convenient times, with advance notice and an open agenda—were probably not held.

Again, what was the role of the local government–the Bangalore Mahanagar Palike which is an elected city government? Of course it has few powers, but even then it was not consulted. By the time of implementation, its term had expired, a new Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagar Palike had been formed, but no elections had been held. To ignore local government in such a large project does not seem wise, to say the least. This is nothing new in India. The civil society is right in saying that proper consultations were not held. Had they been held properly, much of this could have been sorted out.

During the protests, it emerged that the alignment that was being protested against was not what was recommended as the optimal one by the Detailed Project Report. Why was the optimal route not accepted? How was it changed? Who was responsible? There are no answers to these questions. The secrecy with which the State functions is undesirable. Openness would have done away with the need for such democratic—yet fruitless—protests that waste the time of many people. 2 Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study There is also the problem in civil society.

When the first protests were made in Chinmaya Mission Hospital Road, before construction began, it was an isolated voice. It raised important issues, but they fought a lone battle. Those who led the protest later in Jayanagar knew about the Metro and its alignment, but they kept quiet. Why not join forces and make it a city issue that requires answers? Later when they protest the alignment along Nanda Road, there was no one to come to their aid. They began the protest after construction began; it was too late. The BMRCL which was responsible for construction could not take up the issues raised, which fall into the domain of the Government.

Wrong time, wrong target. When it is clear that the city needs a metro, and when there are sophisticated studies, clearance by an environmental group with credible membership, loud protests and moral sentiments can get nowhere, as Chinmay shows. The protesting groups had no alternative to offer. When asked for details on other options, they refused to provide them, saying the BMRCL must do so. The protest lost credibility fairly fast. The final protest—a shraddh ceremony-also probably did little to get them sympathy. This mock brahminical ritual—must have alienated more people.

This report brings out the context in which protests take place in India. This is probably typical of many others. There is a core of truth in the issue raised. There is secrecy in government functioning and decision making that provides a foundation for discontent. But there is also a lack of participation, of preparation, of a reasoned argument in the protests. I hope this case study will help us understand the role of civil society better, and also help us to form coalitions in which the gaps identified can be filled so that in future, public participation in decision making is more fruitful. Vinod Vyasulu Director Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study Acknowledgements At the very outset, I would like to thank Dr. Vinod Vyasulu for allowing me to work with CBPS on this topic, for continuously guiding me in my research and for fine-tuning the draft document. I would also like to thank Dr. Poornima Vyasulu, for encouraging me to take up this topic for research, Dr. Shashikala Sitaram, for comments on a previous draft and meticulous analysis and pointers on the final draft and everyone else at CBPS for their support. Thanks are also due to Mr.

Leo Saldanha of Environment Support Group, Vinay Sreenivasa and Kanishka of Hasiru Usiru for sparing their time while providing me valuable information. 4 Chinmay* * About the Author Chinmay is a second year Business Management student pursuing his B. B. M degree from Christ University, Bangalore. For his internship with CBPS in the summer of 2009, his research was on the documentation of the protests against the metro alignment on C. M. H Road, in Lalbagh and on Nanda Theatre Road Bangalore which culminated in the present paper. Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 5 Table of Contents 1.

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 1. 1. Objective of the Study ………………………………………………………… 8 1. 2. Limitations of the Study ………………………………………………………. 8 2. Background: Namma Metro………………………………………………………………………………… 9 2. 1. Benefits of the Metro ……………………………………………………….. 10 2. 2. Limitations of the Metro …………………………………………………….. 0 3. Break-up of Funds ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 4. Issues Relating to Planning of the Metro…………………………………………………………… 11 4. 1. Chinmaya Mission Hospital Road Alignment …………………………….. 11 4. 2. Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road Stretch Alignment ………………….. 12 5. Stakeholders Involved………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 5. 1. Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike ………………………………………… 3 5. 2. Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited ……………………………………. 13 5. 3. Civic Bodies……………………………………………………………………. 14 5. 3. 1. Hasiru Usiru ……………………………………………………………….. 14 5. 3. 2. Environment Support Group ……………………………………………. 14 5. 3. 3. Maraa ……………………………………………………………………….. 15 5. 3. 4. Sanmathi …………………………………………………………………… 5 6. Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 6 Table of Figures A Map of Phase One of the Metro Alignment C. M. H Road Lalbagh Nanda Theatre Road Hasiru Usiru Padayatra on 21/04/09 Flyer 1 Flyer 2 A map of the alternatives suggested by ESG and HU Shraadh Ceremony organized by Sanmathi and Hasiru Usiru Baiyappanahalli Station Deepanjali Nagar Station Lalbagh Station 8 10 10 11 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20

Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 7 List of Abbreviations Abbreviation BBMP BMRCL CMH DPR ESG GOI GOK HU IFS KSCA KR Road MG Road NGO PIL Description Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited Chinmaya Mission Hospital Detailed Project Report Environment Support Group Government of India Government of Karnataka Hasiru Usiru Indian Forest Service Karnataka State Cricket Association Krishna Rajendra Road Mahatma Gandhi Road Non- Governmental Organization Public Interest Litigation

Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 8 1. Introduction Bangalore is one of the most developed cities in India. The city being at 3000 ft above sea level has an excellent climatic condition that had always attracted people from pan-India and has been traditionally known as a Pensioners’ Paradise. Additionally, the city has been recognized globally as the technology hub of India leading to a large number of multinational companies setting up their business operation. Consequently, it has a large, growing population saturating the existing traffic system.

That has resulted in the need for another mode of local transport – a mass rapid transportation system that can result in decongesting city’s road network. A metro rail system was found to be the most suitable solution, and the Government therefore set up the Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL) to plan and implement the project. BMRCL has drawn up a plan to implement phase-I of the project as North-South and EastWest corridors with stretches named Reach 1, 2, 3 and 4. The reach 1 stretch of the East-West Corridor is between Byappanahalli terminus and Cricket Stadium (KSCA) and passes through Chinmaya Mission Hospital (C.

M. H) Road in Indiranagar and M. G. Road in Cantonment area. Similarly reach 4 of the NorthSouth corridor is between Majestic and Puttenahalli passing though Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road. All these tracks on reach 1 and reach 4 have fully grown trees on both sides of the designated track route putting out a lush green canopy all along. This metro project has been designed in such a way that it requires chopping and destroying many trees and some private properties along both Reach 1 and Reach 4 stretches. The metro rail also occupies a small portion of Lalbagh which is a botanical garden in Bangalore.

It was initially a private garden made by Hyder Ali one of the most famous rulers of Old Mysore in 1760. It is now public land and is under the department of horticulture, Karnataka. Its wide range of flora has earned it a place in the gardens of the world. It is regarded as one of the best gardens in the East for its layout, maintenance, scientific treasures and scenic beauty. Its environment is such that it attracts many people for morning and evening walks. The decision of the government and BMRCL to occupy this land of heritage and sentimental value has angered the public.

This has resulted in extensive protest by the public in an attempt to force BMRCL to re-align the tracks to limit such destruction of environment. 1. 1. Objective of the Study The main objective is to study and record the details of the Bangalore Metro and the public response to the track alignment on Chinmaya Mission Hospital (C. M. H) Road and also on the Rashtriya Vidyalaya (RV) Road and Nanda Theatre Road stretch. 1. 2. Limitations of the Study • Information discussed in this report may not be complete as some information remains inaccessible. Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore

Namma Metro – A Study • Constant discussions and updating of information has made it difficult to keep track of all events related to this issue. 9 2. Background: Namma Metro Bangalore Metro also known as Namma Metro is a project started by the Government of India and Government of Karnataka as a new and economical mode of transport in Bangalore. The metro will run on electricity. The purpose behind this is to make mass transportation eco friendly. The government thus encourages the public to use this mode of transport. This transport facility would cost about 1. times that of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation thus making it affordable to all middle class citizens. The estimated cost of this project was rupees 6395 crores. The Bangalore Metro weaves through the bustling commercial and residential areas of the city. The first phase of Bangalore Metro, consisting of two corridors of double line electrified, will cover a total of 42. 30 km. The East-West corridor will be 18. 10 km. long, starting from Byappanahalli and terminating at Mysore Road terminal, going via Old Madras Road, Indiranagar, C. M. H. Road, Ulsoor, Trinity Circle, M.

G. Road, Cricket Stadium, Vidhana Soudha, Central College, Majestic, City Railway Station, Magadi Road, Hosahalli, Vijayanagar and Deepanjali Nagar. The 24. 20 km. North-South corridor will begin at Hesarghatta Road Terminal and terminate at Puttenahalli going via Mahalakshmi, Rajajinagar, Kuvempu Road, Malleswaram, Swastik, Majestic, Chikpet, City Market, K. R. Road, Lalbagh, South End Circle,Jayanagar and Puttenahalli. Out of the 42. 30 km. , 8. 822 km. will be underground near City Railway Station, Vidhana Soudha, Majestic and City Market and most of the rest will be elevated.

To construct a metro of this size, trees have to be felled and parks will have to be destroyed. In certain areas private property will also have to be acquired. A map of the alignment of phase 1 of the metro is indicative of this. Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 10 A Map of Phase One of the Metro Alignment1 (The line in red indicates the underground portion of the metro whereas the blue line indicates an overhead metro rail) 2. 1. Benefits of the Metro mode of transportation • • • • • •

Faster mode of transport at reasonable prices Safer and more comfortable mode of transport Better connectivity within the city Greater frequency hence making it more convenient for the commuter Traffic decongestion at several busy intersections Environment friendly transport facility All this signifies development. 2. 2. Limitations of the Metro mode of transportation • • • • Loss of parks and trees which could increase pollution levels Loss of private property in certain areas Noise pollution in places where metro goes overhead Users would mainly be people of the middle class although there may be a few exceptions.

Possibility of vendors causing chaos at metro stations • 1 Source: BMRCL website www. bmrc. co. in Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 11 3. Break-up of Funds As per approval of GOI in their letter dated 11 May 2006, the total project outlay envisaged is Rs. 6395 crore, which is proposed to be financed by way of Equity, Subordinate debt and senior term debt as per the pattern given in the table. A table showing the expenditure of the government. Particulars 1. Equity 2. Subordinate debt 3. Sub-total (1+2) 4. Senior Term debt Grand Total GOI 959. 25 (15%) 639. 0(10%) 1598. 75(25%) GOK 959. 25 (15%) 959. 25 (15%) 1918. 50 (30%) 2 Total 1918. 50 (30%) 1598. 75 (25%) 3517. 25 (55%) 2877. 75 (45%) 6395. 00 (100%) Note: A subordinate debt is a debt which ranks after all other debts and a senior term debt also known as long term debt is a loan taken against the collateral value of property. According to sources the cost of construction has now been increased to approximately Rs. 9000 crore in the same proportion. 4. Issues Relating to the Planning of the Metro There are two stretches of the metro which the public finds inconvenient namely 4. . Chinmaya Mission Hospital Road Alignment Issue An alignment of the metro that people find inconvenient is on C. M. H Road of reach 1. Mr. Imtiaz who owns property on this road and fighting this case in court says that a lot of trees have been felled and this alignment is not suitable as private property could be destroyed. He says that Old Madras Road would be a better alignment. The judgment of the case was heard after vacation and the alignment was not changed. 2 Source: BMRCL website www. bmrc. co. in Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 12

C. M. H Road3 4. 2. Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road Stretch Alignment Issue The metro alignment on this stretch is a major cause for concern as it involves felling of many trees (the exact number of trees is not known although according to sources the Detailed Project Report (DPR) gives a figure of 323 trees. (However this number has not been confirmed). A detailed description of the problem on this stretch is given below. Lalbagh4 3 4 Source: Bangalore. citizenmatters. in Source: The Hindu website (www. thehindu. com) Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore

Namma Metro – A Study 13 Nanda Theatre Road5 5. Stakeholders Involved There are five stakeholders involved namely the Government of Karnataka, Government of India, BBMP, BMRCL and the public out of which the major stakeholders are the BBMP, BMRCL and the public. The Government of Karnataka and Government of India as of now have no plans of changing the alignment. 5. 1. Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) The trees of Lalbagh have made way for the metro; however the tree officer Mr. Venkateshappa has said that he has not passed any orders for the felling of trees in Lalbagh.

The BBMP has booked the BMRCL for the felling of trees in this area but then again most of the trees felled are eucalyptus trees for which the BMRCL does not require the permission of the tree officer. 5. 2. Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL) Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Limited is a Government Company implementing Bangalore Metro Rail Project. The BMRCL after being appointed by the government is constructing the metro as commissioned. They have been booked by the BBMP for the felling of trees without an order from the tree officer.

They have also been accused of hiring child labourers for the construction on Nanda Theatre Road. However they hold the contractor responsible and refuse to take the responsibility for this action. Protestors say that the BMRCL has not shared information with the public which is one of the main causes of the protest. A member of the Hasiru Usiru Mr. Vinay Sreenivasa says that when he asked the BMRCL for a soft copy of the Detailed Project Report (DPR), they said that it was not available and a hard copy was made available to them after several requests. The Managing Director of BMRCL Mr. N. Source: ariseindia. blog Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study Sivasailam attended a protest organized by the Hasiru Usiru organization and answered a few questions put forward by the public. The answers did not satisfy them. The BMRCL is now following government instructions and will continue to do so until and unless there is a change in alignment. Some details of the project are available on the BMRCL website. 5. 3. Civic Bodies 14 As pointed out earlier, there are two stretches of the metro that have turned out to be problems for the public namely C. M.

H Road and Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road stretch. The protests can further be classified as follows: Against the Metro Construction on Nanda Theatre Road and Lalbagh Stretch A number of NGOs stand against the decision of the government to construct the metro along R. V road where the metro station would come up in Lalbagh. The construction of this station would mean that a part of Lalbagh would have to be occupied and many trees have already been felled. The overhead metro will then go onto Nanda Theatre Road where again a large number of trees will have to be felled and will have to make way for it.

The percentage of Lalbagh that is going to be acquired for the metro would be approximately 0. 2%; however this has not been confirmed. The following civic bodies are involved in the protests 5. 3. 1. Hasiru Usiru (HU) Hasiru Usiru is a network of concerned citizens of Bangalore who want Bangalore to live up to its “Garden City” epithet and are concerned about the conservation of public commons, open spaces and greenery. Since 1998, Hasiru Usiru has served as a platform to explore various approaches to resolve urban challenges, through meetings, workshops, awareness campaigns, and public interest litigations.

A key concern has been to develop sensitivity among implementing agencies involved in urban infrastructure development towards the role of the public in decision making, and to ensure that projects are developed in conformance with law, and equitable benefits to all sections of society6. 5. 3. 2. Environment Support Group (ESG) Environment Support Group (ESG) is an independent not-for-profit nongovernmental organization, founded in 1996 and registered as a Public Charitable Trust in 1998. Its main functions involve research, training, campaign support, and advocacy on a variety of environmental and social justice issues.

ESG is amongst the foremost proponents in India for the reform of environmental decision making processes urging that the same be made more participatory and environmentally and socially just. ESG initiated or supported campaigns have been largely successful despite the nature of the issues being 6 Source: Hasiru Usiru website www. hasiruusiru. org Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study highly controversial and politically sensitive with national-level implications. In acknowledgement of its influencing role, ESG’s services have been sought by a variety of regional, national and international agencies.

Environment Support Group is an openly structured organization that has achieved high levels of participation in its activities from its Full Time Staff, Trustees, Volunteers and Advisory Panel7. They have been successful in organizing protests on a large scale and getting media coverage. 15 5. 3. 3. Maraa Maraa means ‘tree’ in Kannada, the local language of Karnataka. They are a group who are interested in doing anything which is related to media, creative arts, and even personal expression. They support the Environment Support Group and Hasiru Usiru. 5. 3. 4.

Sanmathi Sanmathi is an association formed by a group of women who want to save all parks and Lalbagh for their children. Ladies of Sanmathi are not willing to trade their children’s health for any activity whether the activities are for development or otherwise. The Residents of Jayanagar and Other Affected Citizens Although some people stand in favor of the construction of the metro as it signifies development, there are a few people who are against this project as it leads to the degradation of the environment. This is caused by the felling of trees in certain areas. This has angered the public and led to a series of protests.

The Hasiru Usiru NGO along with the Environment Support Group has started these protests and has public support to a certain extent which was seen at the protests. Another NGO, Maraa has also joined them in their protests. They also have the support of Sanmathi, a group of women who want to save parks for their children. There have been a few protests. The picture below was taken during one such protest. They say that if a part of Lalbagh and other green spaces are being acquired for the metro now, there is no guarantee that they will not do it again for other projects.

There are other concerns such as traffic problems outside Lalbagh as there is going to be a metro station constructed at that site. One more problem stated by environmental activists is that none of the metro stations provide for a car parking facility except at terminals. A human chain was formed as a sign of protest followed by the protest march from South End Circle in Jayanagar to Lalbagh West Gate where many flyers were distributed. 7 Source: ESG website www. esgindia. org Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 16 Hasiru Usiru Padayatra on 21/04/09

Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study Protest Flyers 17 Flyer 18 8 Source: A scanned copy of the flyers issued to the public at the protests Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 18 Flyer 29 Another protest march saw protestors walking from Lalbagh West Gate to Nanda Theatre Road. A week later a workshop was held as a public awareness program. The Hasiru Usiru volunteers shared information from the Detailed Project Report (DPR) acquired from the BMRCL with great difficulty which gives a detailed description of the metro plan.

They said that the public is being violated 9 Source: A scanned copy of the flyers issued to the public at the protests Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study of its right to information as the BMRCL does not let the public in on its plans. They discussed alternative routes for the metro which have already been mentioned in the DPR. The first route being straight down K. R Road to Banashankari without touching Nanda Theatre Road or Lalbagh. Another route suggested was from K. R road taking a turn towards Jayanagar complex on Patalamma Temple Road (transit station).

It skips Nanda Theatre Road altogether and goes to 9th main. The third is to go underground. A map of the alternatives suggested by ESG and HU. 10 (The dotted line indicates option 1 and the broken line indicates option 2 The straight line indicates the current alignment) 19 The day after the workshop, members of HU along with the residents of Jayanagar assembled at Lalbagh when they heard that the trees at Lalbagh were being felled. They started hugging the trees as a sign of protest thus preventing further felling.

The members of Hasiru Usiru had a meeting with Mr. Krishna Bhat the Deputy Commissioner of Police Bangalore South and Mr. Ramesh Chandra, Assistant Commissioner of Police, Jayanagar to protect public property and trees from such illegal activities. They believe that the Chief Minister Mr. Yedyurappa has been wrongly advised on this issue and has thus taken this stand. Hasiru Usiru has an advocate Mr. Sunil Dutt Yadav who supports their cause and claims that what the BMRCL is doing is illegal. They have managed to 10

Source: A presentation made for the workshop conducted by ESG to keep the public informed about the metro project. Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study get a lot of media coverage through their protests. They have managed to get a little over 3500 online petition signatures. A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was filed in the High Court on May 13, 2009. A gist of the PIL is included in Annexure – I. On hearing the presentations from both sides on 21 May 2009, the High Court considered it inappropriate to interfere with the project and refused to stay the on-going work.

That was a big disappointment to the protesting groups. After this Hasiru Usiru along with Sanmathi organized a mock shraadh (cremation) ceremony for the trees of Nanda Theatre Road. A picture showing the shraadh ceremony has been attached below. 20 Shraadh Ceremony organized by Sanmathi and Hasiru Usiru It is rumored that some of the protestors including women have received serious threats to their lives. Major General S. G Vombatkere, a retired army officer supports Environment Support Group.

At a meeting he said that in the long term interest of the state there should be no cutting of trees at all and doing compensatory planting is not the answer although it is better than doing nothing at all. He also says that the carbon footprint of the city should be looked at before constructing a project of this magnitude and social justice should be done by consulting the public before implementing it. In Favor of the Metro Construction on Nanda Theatre Road and Lalbagh Stretch The Federation of Jayanagar Residents Association supports the metro construction on this stretch.

They have put up banners saying that they want the metro on Nanda Theatre Road. They organized a public discussion with the Managing Director of BMRCL and the residents of Jayanagar who had gathered there and decided to make a compromise. They agreed to the current alignment Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study on the condition that the BMRCL would plant trees elsewhere after felling the trees on the Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road stretch; however they represent a minority of the residents of Jayanagar.

This may lead to an argument within the resident community of this area. A case has been filed by the protestors against the secretary of this association as he was not willing to cooperate with the organizations involved in the protests. The case has been filed by the members of ESG and HU. Artist’s impression of a few metro stations as per the BMRCL website gallery 21 Baiyappanahalli Station11 Deepanjali Nagar Station12 11 12 Source: BMRCL website www. bmrc. co. in Source: BMRCL website www. bmrc. co. in Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study 22

Lalbagh Station13 Members of the ESG who are doing a detailed study of the project say that the stations shown above will not be constructed in the manner shown; instead asbestos sheets will be used to build the roofs of the stations and these designs may not be used. 6. Summary The traffic congestion has been a perennial problem in Bangalore and the road linked development has reached the brim. Bangalore metro has been a long awaited project envisaged by the government to provide mass rapid transportation to the citizens of Bangalore and to ease the congestion on the roads. The

BMRCL, after being appointed to implement the project ‘Namma Metro’ has developed a project design that will require chopping of fully grown trees in many stretches of the Phase–I project corridors. That has attracted widespread resistance in some sections of the four initial reaches of the metro now under implementation, and also encountered serious criticism by the public for environmental destructive planning that would bring down thousands of fully grown trees. The controversy of the metro stretch on C. M. H Road and another on Lalbagh and Nanda Theatre Road has drawn the attention of the media.

The media has helped the protesting groups to mobilize support from the public. After a number of protests and online petition signatures ESG and HU filed a PIL in the High Court, but the court however has refused to stay the on-going project in Lalbagh and on Nanda Theatre Road while admitting the PIL. The Federation of Jayanagar Residents Association supports the government’s decision of constructing the metro on this stretch as per the planned alignment. Also, rumours have it that the protestors have been threatened to stop their protests.

A police case has been filed against the secretary of the Association mentioned above in relation to threats received by the protestors. 13 Source: BMRCL website www. bmrc. co. in Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study During the protests, it also emerged that the alignment that was being protested against was not what was the optimal in the Detailed Project Report (DPR). It puzzles why the optimal route was not accepted for implementation? There appears to be many gaps between the DPR and the project implementation on ground.

One wonders if there would be any professional deficiency in the system that will be delivered as a public utility. This development Vs environment preservation controversy and the project planners have to deal with this more holistically than what is being done now, with appropriate public sensitivity. Mr. Yellappa Reddy, environmentalist and an ex-officer of the Indian Forest Service (IFS) who was the Environment Impact Assessment and Monitoring Committee chairman of Namma Metro submitted his resignation alleging that he had been kept in the ark about the environmental initiatives undertaken by the BMRCL. As published in Deccan Herald, in his resignation letter, addressed to BMRCL Chairman N Sivasailam, Reddy claimed the five-member expert committee constituted to examine the implications of the project on the city environment has not been convened even once during the past two years, though thousands of trees are being felled, to make way for the project. “If I as chairman of the committee have not been informed about the environment initiatives undertaken, what will be the plight of the people”, he stated in his letter14. The C. M.

H Road alignment case relating to building demolition has been unresolved even as of date although the court has permitted BMRCL to proceed with the work. The affected public has been knocking on the doors of justice periodically on some issue or the other. There is also the problem in civil society. Initially the protests in C. M. H Road issue, before construction began, were an isolated voice. It raised important issues, but they fought a lone battle without involving the public at large. Those who led the protest in Jayanagar knew about the Metro and its alignment earlier, but were quiet initially.

Later when they protested against the alignment along Nanda Road, not many came to their aid. They began the protest after the construction began; it was then too late and the High Court refused to stay the work. The BMRCL which was responsible for construction could not take up the larger issues raised, which required the Government attention. There were, therefore, many mis-matches and mis-timings. Building a metro is without a doubt an essential aspect of a growing city like Bangalore but there should be an end to the periodic conflicts and fights between the public and the agencies set up by the government.

The government may also consider forming a project-public committee that would include the representatives of the environmental NGOs, the committee should present the views and disagreements, if any, at the project planning stage itself than at the implementation stage. 23 14 Source: Deccan Herald Sunday 25th October 2009 Centre for Budget & Policy Studies, Bangalore Namma Metro – A Study Annexure – I: PIL Case Facts: “Environment Support Group, Leo F. Saldanha and Hasiru Usiru have filed a PIL in the Hon’ble High Court of Karnataka challenging the Govt. ordinance and notifications relating to Lalbagh land transfer to Namma Metro.

Hon’ble Justices N. K. Patil and V. Jagannathan constituting a Division Bench (on vacation) heard the PIL and ordered notices on the Respondents to appear in the matter during its hearing on 21 May 2009. The case presents the facts that: 1) The Ordinance issued by His Excellency the Governor of Karnataka on 22 November 2008 alienating a portion of Lalbagh (for Metro) and Indira Gandhi Musical Fountain Park in Cubbon Park limits (for road widening) has lapsed as the Government of Karnataka failed to get an assent to a Bill to replace the Ordinance when the Legislature met subsequently. ) Prior to the issuance of the Ordinance, i. e. on 20 November 2008, the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board issued a Sec 28 (1) Notification for acquisition of a portion of Lalbagh for the Metro. 3) That even when the Ordinance has lapsed, the Government proceeded to issue an Order to Horticulture Dept to alienate 1135 sq metres of Lalbagh for Metro. This portion was to be sold by Horticulture Department to BMRCL, which in turn can put it to any use that it deems fit in future.

Presenting the case, Counsel Sunil Dutt Yadav argued that the entire alignment through R. V Road is in blatant violation of the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, which the Hon’ble High Court in PIL WP 7107/2008 (Environment Support Group and ors, vs. State of Karnataka and ors. ) has held must be strictly complied with along with the Karnataka Preservation of Trees Act. In the instant case, trees have been felled inside Lalbagh in blatant violation of these laws.

A document of the Horticulture Department was produced to reveal that no permission has been taken prior to felling trees inside Lalbagh. And similarly no notification has at all been issued in conformance with the KTCP Act or Government Parks Act to set aside portions of Lalbagh, Lakshman Rao Park and K. R. Road for the Metro and its stations, and similarly from the Fountain Park for BBMP. If such is the case inside some of the most protected parks in the State, the fate of other such spaces in other parts

Socio-Geographic Factors

Socio-Geographic Factors

Socio-Geographic Factors Tom Jackson University of Phoenix Socio-Geographic Factors In today’s very competitive business world, organizations are routinely facing challenges in regard to the way they conduct business. Many United States organizations are finding the concept of globalization very appealing. The organizations that decide to go global understand that the incorporation of a diversified working environment is imperative to retaining and attracting key employees. In this paper I analyze Verizon Communication’s standard operational procedure for addressing many of the issues associated with acquiring a diverse workforce.

Many organizations are direct mirrors of the community they serve. That organization consists of cultural differences and backgrounds. In order for organizations to remain competitive, managers must effectively encourage people from diverse backgrounds to work together. Headquartered in New York, Verizon Communications Incorporated is leading the communications industry in delivering broadband and other wireless communications services to nearly 93 million customers here in the United States (Verizon, 2010).

Verizon prides itself in employing a diverse workforce of 217,000 employees from all walks of life. Class and Work Values According to the text, classifications help us to make sense of human variety and to manage social relations in a rapidly changing, complex world (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, p. 166). Most Americans typically are members of four classes; upper – class, middle – class, working – class, and lower – class. Before taking a closer look at the different class structures, it is equally important to link the connection to stratification and segmentation.

Stratification and segmentation is defined as the division of society into discrete groups (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, p. 47). In America, like most other societies, members of the same backgrounds and cultures typically pursue similar lifestyles. Americans have adopted an open class system in which they believe that by hard work and determination, one can change his particular classification. People born into the lower – class can actually transform into the middle or upper class via the wealth and prestige that he accumulates. People from some other countries have little chance of changing his classification.

Verizon Communications embraces all forms of diversity including age, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and more. Verizon understands the importance employing a workforce representative of the customers it serves. Verizon understands that diversity enables innovation and encourages creative thinking by all members of the organization, “Our commitment to diversity begins at the top of our company, and we measure our progress like any other business objective; executives are accountable for promoting diversity within their organizations” (Verizon, 2010, p. ). Verizon Communications realizes that diversity includes everyone. Verizon’s working environment consists of encouraging all employees to maximize his talents thus creating a feeling of respect and appreciation, “We’ll attract and retain talented men and women from all backgrounds and every race, national origin, sexual orientation and generation” (Verizon, 2010, p. 1). Verizon’s workforce percentages are as follows: American Indian – 1. 0, Asian – 4. 0, African American – 20. 0, Hispanic – 10. 0, White – 63. 0, and other 2. 0.

At Verizon, the commitment to diversity is expressed in a variety of ways. Talented employees are recruited from all backgrounds. Verizon spends more than $3 billion a year on diverse suppliers who represent the community in which they do business. Verizon realizes that “diversity leads to innovative success. And this belief is communicated through our entire organization, starting at the very top” (Verizon, 2010, p. 1). Management Issues in a Geographically Mobile Society In today’s society, Americans are finding more reasons to relocate to different environments.

Some of the more common factors associated with the mobility of Americans consists of cultural background, historical experience, economic necessity, and media reinforcement (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). As Americans grow older, they often desire to separate from those that raised them. An important aspect of American history is the need for some Americans to break away from family and class backgrounds. Some of the pros associated with breaking away include better opportunities for social integration, a safer environment, or a more pleasant climate.

Some of the cons of breaking away are lost of kin support and of contact with friends, and disruption of children’s schooling (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). Geographically societies create challenges for organizations as well. One of the biggest challenges is to attract and retain good workers. According to Kottack and Kozaitis, the primary reason to migrate is to increase earnings, “A flexible and unregulated North American labor market with substantial geographic mobility results in lower unemployment and higher labor force participation” (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, p. 235).

In 2010, Fortune Magazine has ranked Verizon Communications number one in the telecommunications sector for the World’s Most Admired Companies. Attributes that Fortune magazine look for are innovation, people management, use of corporate assets, quality of management, long-term investment and quality of products and services (Verizon, 2010). One of Verizon’s driving core values is to motivate, challenge and encourage their employees to be their very best, every day (Verizon, 2010). Verizon is routinely included on “best of” list yearly, which is a clear testament of what the company is all about.

Verizon understands that innovation and providing top notched customer service is not an option. Regional Variations Affect Management Planning Regional differences are sometimes associated with regional stereotypes. Like ethnic stereotypes, regional stereotypes are often negative and discriminative. Unfortunately, regional differences still exist in the United States. Most people attribute regional differences to speech, but other variances include religion, race, and ethnicity (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). It is the manager’s responsibility to create a safe and professional working environment.

Managers are encouraged to work effectively with a diverse workforce. Besides the obvious stereotypes associated with different countries, managers also have to deal with stereotypes here in the United States. Many southern communities are ridiculed and discriminated for the way they speak. Oftentimes, when they migrate outside of the south, they typically modify their speech to fit national norms or meet new local standards (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). Verizon Communications has a very diverse leadership team that recognizes the importance of treating all employees fairly regardless of their social or economic class.

Managers at Verizon are as diverse as the customers who it serves. The diversified leadership team allows Verizon to effectively service the needs and wants of its customers. Verizon has implemented several developmental programs to help the next generation of managers to effectively manage a diversified workforce. The Financial Talent Acquisition Program is aimed at various finance projects. Candidates will also learn how to manage the various groups at Verizon. The Marketing Development Program designed for future marketing managers. The role of the program is to focus on Verizon’s business customer parameters.

Finally, LEAD – Leadership Excellence and Development Program. This program prepares candidates for it Network Service Group (NSG). This program is strictly for developing and building leadership skills (Verizon, 2010). The Changing Definition of Family has affected the Functions of Management In today’s society, the family structure is not what it used to be. Today’s families could be biological or non-biological parties, “In our society individuals form strong attachments, loyalties, and interdependencies, with persons to whom they are not ‘blood related,” but “spirit related” (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, p. 66). According to (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003), some North Americans have created fictive kinship ties, which are merely reciprocal provisions of goods and services, including affection, companionship, and shared values between nonbiologically, but socially related individuals. Many North American marriages simply end in divorce nowadays. More people are deciding to live together without the lawful or moral bond of marriage. Marriage has taken a backseat to the more convenient “domestic partner” or roommate.

Some people even consider their coworkers family. Family, whether blood or not, is important, and necessary for all individuals. People have a natural desire to bond and belong to other people. Verizon understands that the world is changing. The family structure of the past is not necessarily the way society views family today. Therefore, Verizon has adopted many programs and benefits available for the present family structure, “At Verizon, we know that our strength is the sum of the strength of our people.

That’s why we are committed to their health, prosperity and happiness in and out of work” (Verizon, 2010, p. 1). Verizon understands that in order to attract and retain key employees, the company has to offer a very competitive salary; along with the competitive salary, attractive incentives, and a very good 401(k). The company also offers corporate discounts on travel and other gifts. Verizon Communication also has one of the best health and well-being programs in the industry, which includes medical, dental, and vision.

The company offers health and dependent care spending accounts as well as disability, long-term care assistance and fitness centers Verizon, 2010). Additionally, the company offers paid vacations, personal days, flexible scheduling, and commuter spending accounts. For the family, Verizon offers employee assistance, adoption assistance, and home and, auto insurance (Verizon, 2010). Finally, for those employees interested in furthering their education, Verizon offers tuition assistance, on-the-job training, online development tools, and training curricula.

Conclusion Today’s organizations are faced with many socio-geographical factors. In order for organizations to remain competitive and a driving force in its industry, it is imperative that managers effectively work with the various differences within its diverse workforce. It is important for managers to treat all employees equally and with respect. The United States is a culturally diverse country and organizations that decide to do business here must accept all socio-geographical differences.

This paper evaluated Verizon Communications policies and procedures regarding diversity within the organization. Society is made up of many class structures and ethnic groups. Organizations that indeed embrace the concept of diversity within the workplace will surely reap the rewards. References Kottak, C. P. , & Kozaitis, K. A. (2003): On Being Different: Diversity and Multiculturalism in the North American Mainstream, 2e: Retrieved June 28. 2010. Verizon Communications, Inc. (2009). Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://www22. verizon. com/content/verizonglobalhome/ghp_business. aspx

Cost Sheet

Cost Sheet

Cost sheet is a statement, which shows various components of total cost of a product. It classifies and analyses the components of cost of a product. It is a statement which shows per unit cost in addition to Total Cost. Selling price is ascertained with the help of cost sheet. The details of total cost presented in the form of a statement is termed as Cost sheet. Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of : 1. Historical Cost 2. Estimated Cost Historical Cost Historical Cost sheet is prepared on the basis of actual cost incurred.

A statement of cost prepared after incurring the actual cost is called Historical Cost Sheet. Estimated Cost Estimated cost sheet is prepared on the basis of estimated cost. The statement prepared before the commencement of production is called estimated cost sheet. Such cost sheet is useful in quoting the tender price of a job or a contract. Importance of Cost Sheet The importance of cost sheet is as follows: _ Cost ascertainment The main objective of the cost sheet is to ascertain the cost of a product. Cost sheet helps in ascertainment of cost for the purpose of determining cost after they are incurred.

It also helps to ascertain the actual cost or estimated cost of a Job. _ Fixation of selling price To fix the selling price of a product or service, it is essential to prepare the cost sheet. It helps in fixing selling price of a product or service by providing detailed information of the cost. _ Help in cost control For controlling the cost of a product it is necessary for every manufacturing unit to prepare a cost sheet. Estimated cost sheet helps in the control of material cost, labour cost and overheads cost at every point of production. _ Facilitates managerial decisions

It helps in taking important decisions by the management such as: whether to produce or buy a component, what prices of goods are to be quoted in the tender, whether to retain or replace an existing machine etc. 29. 2 COMPONENTS OF TOTAL COST The Components of cost are shown in the classified and analytical form in the cost sheet. Components of total cost are as follows: Prime Cost It consists of direct material, direct wages and direct expenses. In other words “Prime cost represents the aggregate of cost of material consumed, productive wages, and direct expenses”. It is also known as basic, first, flat or direct cost of a product.

Prime Cost = Direct material + Direct Wages + Direct expenses Direct material means cost of raw material used or consumed in production. It is not necessary that all the material purchased in a particular period is used in production. There is some stock of raw material in balance at opening and closing of the period. Hence, it is necessary that the cost of opening and closing stock of material is adjusted in the material purchased. Opening stock of material is added and closing stock of raw material is deducted in the material purchased and we get material consumed or used in production of a product.

It is calculated as : Material Consumed = Material purchased + Opening stock of material – Closing stock of material. Cost sheet is a statement of cost. In other words, when costing information are set out in the form of a statement, it is called cost sheet. It is usually adopted when there is only one product is produced and all costs are incurred for that product only. Cost sheet may be prepared for a week, monthly, quarterly or yearly indicating various components of cost as prime cost, works cost, cost of production, cost of goods sold, total cost and also profitability on a production.

The preparation of cost sheet depends on the cost data provided by cost accounting. Due to differences in the nature of cost data there  are three different cost sheet Performa may be used. (a) Cost sheet with break up cost: These types of cost sheet contains two column as total cost, cost per unit of out put. A specimen of cost sheet with imaginary figure. (b) Cost Sheet with treatment of Stock: This type of cost sheet is maintained in case of manufacturing concern. Generally there are three types of stock as (1) Stock of Raw material, (2) Stock of work in progress and (3) Stock of finished goods.

The treatment of stock in cost sheet has been given in a separate Performa. (c) Estimated cost sheet or price quotation: Price quotation means quoting the minimum price for obtaining a specific order. The quotation is send in the form or estimated cost sheet having one column. In estimated cost sheet all elements of cost and overhead expenses are calculated in the following manner. * Estimated direct material * Estimated labor cost * Estimated overheads Elements of Cost Raw materials are converted into finished products by a manufacturing concern with the help of labor, plants etc.

The elements that constitute the cost of manufacturing are known as elements of cost. The elements of cost include the following: •Material •Labor •Expenses Each of these elements is again subdivided into direct and indirect material. Direct material, direct labor and direct expenses are those which can be traced in relationship with a particular process, job, operation or product. Indirect material, indirect labor and indirect expenses are those which are of general nature and cannot be traced in relationship with a particular process, operation, job or product.

Direct material Direct labor together constitute prime cost Direct expenses Indirect material Indirect labor of the factory together constitute factory (or works) Indirect expenses Prime cost + Factory (or works) overhead = Factory cost or works cost Factory cost + Administration overhead = Cost of production Cost of production+ Selling and distribution overhead = Total cost or cost of sales While working out the cost of sales, following details are to be kept in mind

Analysis on Cement Industry and Ultratech Cement

Analysis on Cement Industry and Ultratech Cement

[pic] TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No 1. Introduction3 2. Indian Cement Industry Analysis4 3. Aditya Birla Group9 4. Ultra Tech Cement14 5. Conclusion19 6. Bibliography20 Figures 1. Cement Demand Drivers5 2. Hindalco Net Sales11 3. Birla Nuvo Consolidated Revenues12 4. Birla Nuvo Revenue Mix12 5. Ultra Tech Net Earnings16 6. Ultra Tech Net Worth16 7. Movement of Share Prices of Ultra Tech17 Tables 1. Cement Dispatch Growth5 2. Ultra Tech Sales Volume14 3. Ultra Tech Sales Realisation15 4. Financial Highlights of Ultra Tech17 5. Ultra Tech and its Competitors18 [pic] INTRODUCTION The Indian cement industry is on a roll.

Driven by a booming housing sector, global demand and increased activity in infrastructure development such as state and national highways, the cement industry has outpaced itself, ramping up production capacity, attracting the top cement companies in the world, and sparking off a spate of mergers and acquisitions to spur growth. The recent boom in the housing and construction industry in India has worked wonders for cement manufacturing companies with capacity utilization crossing the 100 per cent mark for the first time in January 2007. Globally, India is the second largest producer of cement. Cement production grew at the rate of 9. per cent during 2006-07 over the previous fiscals’ total production of 147. 8 mt. Of this, 9. 3 million tone of cement was exported. The Indian cement industry comprises 130 large cement plants and 365 mini-cement plants, with installed capacities of 165 million tones per annum (tap). Large cement plants accounted for over 94 per cent of the total installed capacity. The booming demand for cement, both in India and abroad, have attracted global majors to India. In 2005-06, four of the top-5 cement companies in the world entered India through mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures or Greenfield projects.

These include France’s Lafarge, Holcim from Switzerland, Italy’s Italcementi and Germany’s Heidelberg Cements. Despite the growth of the Indian cement industry, India’s per capita production of 115 kilograms per year lags the world average of over 250 kilograms and China’s production of more than 450 kilograms per year. Clearly there remains room for growth in the industry in India. This Project is an Analysis on Indian Cement Industry and Ultra Tech Cement. [pic] INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY ANALYSIS The Indian cement industry with a total capacity of about 200 m tonnes (MT) in FY09 is the second largest market after China.

The key drivers for cement demand are real estate sector, infrastructure projects and industrial expansion projects. Among these, real estate sector is the main key driver and accounted for almost 55% in FY 07. A few of the leading manufacturers are the UltraTech/Grasim combine, Dalmia Cements, India Cements, and Holcim etc. With the boost given by the government to various infrastructure projects, road networks and housing facilities, growth in the cement consumption is anticipated in the coming years. According to Jyotiraditya Scindia, Minister of State for Commerce and Industry, cement production could rise to 236. 6 MT in FY11 and touch 262. 61 MT in FY12. With almost total capacity utilization levels in the industry, cement dispatches have maintained a 10 per cent growth rate. Total dispatches grew to 170 MT during 2007–08 as against 155 MT in 2006–07. Moreover, cement dispatches were 15. 95 MT in July 2009, showing a growth of 9. 92 per cent as compared to 14. 51 MT in July 2008. During July 2009, cement production was 16. 23 MT, registering a growth of 10. 63 per cent as compared to 14. 67 MT in July 2008. Between April to July 2009, cement production totaled 66. 38 MT while cement dispatches totaled 65. 0 MT. Despite the fact that the Indian cement industry has clocked production of more than 100 MT for the last five years, registering a growth of nearly 9% to 10%, the per capita consumption of around 134 kgs compares poorly with the world average of over 263 kgs, and more than 950 kgs in China. This, more than anything, underlines the tremendous scope for growth in the Indian cement industry in the long term. Given the high potential for growth, quite a few foreign transnational have been eyeing the Indian markets and are planning to acquire domestic companies.

Already, while companies like Lafarge, Heidelberg and Italicementi have made a couple of acquisitions, Holcim has acquired stake in domestic companies Ambuja Cements and ACC and has increased its stake gradually to gain full control. After acquiring stake in big companies, transnationals eyed median capacity producers. Italcementi acquired 100% stake in Zuari Cement and 95% stake in Shree Vishnu. Cimpor, the Portugese cement manufacturer, acquired Grasims stake (53. 63%) in Shree Dig Vijay. The global players put together account of quarter share of the domestic market [pic] DEMAND DRIVERS: [pic] Figure 1

Cement dispatch growth at 5-year high in April: Table 1 |Strong Growth | |Cement dispatches in April | |Year |Dispatch |Growth (%) | |2004 |10. 63 |17. 85 | |2005 |11. 78 |10. 82 | |2006 |13. 05 |10. 8 | |2007 |13. 88 |6. 36 | |2008 |14. 73 |6. 12 | |2009 |16. 65 |13. 03 | |All figures in million tonnes | [pic] ACC, the country’s largest cement maker had a dispatch growth rate of 4. 5 per cent in April whereas Ambuja Cements registered a rise of 10. 74 per cent. The cement despatches of Aditya Birla group, comprising UltraTech Cement and Grasim, in April jumped 17. 43 per cent while the cement major from north Shree Cement’s despatches surged a steep 28 per cent. The dramatic rise in April despatches is due to the low base last year because of the export ban which came into effect during the same period last year, thereby impacting despatches The price hike of Rs 12-15 for a 50 kg bag of cement during the March quarter of FY09 is helping cement makers reap the benefits.

The market players have always maintained that pricing of cement is the function of supply and demand. The government had come up with two stimulus packages which also benefited the cement sector with excise duty cuts and re-imposition of counter-vailing duty (CVD) on the imported cement from Pakistan. Financial Year 09: FY09, the industry maintained volume growth of around 10% YoY. The industry added nearly 30 MT in FY09 over the previous year taking the total capacity to nearly 212 MTPA. India also has been catering to the cement requirements of the Middle East and the South East Asian nations.

However, the exports were curtailed in FY09 in order to satisfy the domestic demand and contain inflation. While demand growth stood at 10% YoY, average industry cement realizations (average of price per bag of cement) were higher by about 5% YoY. The growth in realisations slowed down as additional capacities coming on stream eased the supply pressures. Considering the financial turmoil witnessed globally, financial institutions have tightened their credit norms. This cautious stance has led to a credit crunch and the same has impacted upcoming projects.

On account of general economic slowdown and these issues, the demand for cement has moderated. However, stimulus packages that included reduction in excise duty announced by the government and agricultural income gave a fillip to the demand for the commodity. The industry volumes and realisations were higher during FY09 that boosted top line growth. However, cost of operation did also witnessed northward movement that exerted pressure on margins. To ensure smooth functioning of plants and lower costs, industry has opted to set up captive power plants based on coal.

This has resulted in increase in demand for coal. But coal linkages for the industry are poor. Recently the ratio has dropped below 50%. So the players either have to purchase it from open market or import it. This has increased cost of operation. [pic] New Investments • JSW Cement, part of the OP Jindal Group, plans to set up cement units near the group’s steel plants at Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, and Vijayanagar, Karnataka. The units which will have a combined capacity of 5. 5 MT per annum will be set up at a cost of US$ 393. 1 million. Anil Ambani Group Company Reliance Infrastructure will invest US$ 2. 1 billion to set up cement plants with a total capacity of 20 MT per annum over the next five years. • Reliance Cementation, an Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) company plans to set up a 5 MT integrated cement plant in Yavatmal district of Maharashtra at a cost of US$ 463. 2 million. • Jaiprakash Associates Ltd has inked a MoU with state-owned Assam Mineral Development Corporation Limited (AMDC) for setting up a 2 MT per annum capacity cement plant at an estimated cost of US$ 221. 36 million. Iron ore mining firm Rungta Mines (RML), the flagship company of SR Rungta group, plans to set up a one million tonne cement plant in Orissa with an investment of around US$ 123 million Mergers and Acquisitions (M) • Holcim strengthened its position in India by increasing its holding in Ambuja Cement from 22 per cent to 56 per cent through various open market transactions with an open offer for a total investment of US$ 1. 8 billion. Moreover, it also increased its stake in ACC Cement with US$ 486 million, being the single largest acquirer in the cement sector. Leading foreign funds like Fidelity, ABN Amro, HSBC, Nomura Asset Management Fund and Emerging Market Fund have together bought around 7. 5 per cent in India’s third-largest cement firm, India Cements (ICL), for US$ 124. 91 million. • Cimpor, the Portugese cement maker, paid US$ 68. 10 million for Grasim Industries’ 53. 63 per cent stake in Shree Dig Vijay Cement. • CRH Plc, the world’s second biggest maker and distributor of building materials, acquired a 50 per cent stake in My Home Industries Ltd for almost US$ 372. 64 million. Vicat SA, a French cement maker acquired a 6. 67 per cent stake in Hyderabad-based Sagar Cement for US$ 14. 35 million. [pic] Prospects: • The industry is likely to maintain its growth momentum and continue growing at around 8% to 9% in the medium to long term. Government initiatives in the infrastructure sector and the housing sector are likely to be the main drivers of growth for the industry. • According to a report by the ICRA Industry Monitor, the installed capacity is expected to increase to 241 MTPA by FY 2010-end.

India’s cement industry is likely to record an annual growth of 10 per cent in the coming years with higher domestic demand resulting in increased capacity utilization. • In the recent past, demand has surpassed supply, resulting in healthy cement prices across the country. However, this scenario is likely to reverse as the industry has lined up huge capacity expansion plans. With the growth in the sector and waning demand supply gap, cement producers have lined up capacity expansion plans. • Real estate and construction activities in the urban areas have taken a back seat with economic slowdown.

The importance of the housing sector in cement demand can be gauged from the fact that it consumes almost 60%-70% of the country’s cement. If this support wanes, it would impact the growth in consumption of cement, leading to demand supply mismatch. Also, the hike in prices of coal and petroleum products could impact cement companies margins. SWOT ANALYSIS: Strengths: 1. Growing International Presence 2. Cement Demand has increased due to the growth in Housing sectors, Infrastructure sectors, Industrial projects etc. 3. Capacity Utilization over 90% Weakness: 1. Cement Industry is highly regionalized. . Low value commodity makes transportation over long distances Uneconomical. Opportunities: 1. Growth of core sector industries 2. Rapid integration with global economy. 3. Growing e-commerce business 4. Increasing urbanization Threats: 1. Entry of global players 2. Political Threats 3. The impact of foreign currency fluctuations and interest rates. [pic] ADITYA BIRLA GROUP A US $29. 2 billion corporation, the Aditya Birla Group is in the league of Fortune 500. It is anchored by an extraordinary force of 130,000 employees, belonging to 30 different nationalities.

In India, the Group has been adjudged “The Best Employer in India and among the top 20 in Asia” by the Hewitt-Economic Times and Wall Street Journal Study 2007. Over 50 per cent of its revenues flow from its overseas operations. The Group operates in 25 countries — India, UK, Germany, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Australia, USA, Canada, Egypt, China, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Philippines, Dubai, Singapore, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Malaysia and Korea. Globally the Aditya Birla Group is • A metals powerhouse, among the world’s most cost-efficient aluminum and copper producers.

Hindalco-Novelis is the largest aluminum rolling company. It is one of the three biggest producers of primary aluminum in Asia, with the largest single location copper smelter. • The fourth largest producer of insulators. • No. 1 in viscose staple fiber. • The fourth largest producer of carbon black. • The 11th largest cement producer globally, the seventh largest in Asia and the second largest in India • Among the world’s top 15 BPO companies and among India’s top four • Among the best energy efficient fertilser plants In India • A premier branded garments player. The second largest player in viscose filament yarn. • The second largest in the chlor-alkali sector. • Among the top five mobile telephony companies. • A leading player in life insurance and asset management. • Among the top three supermarket chains in the retail business. [pic] COMPANIES Group Companies: • Grasim Industries Ltd • Hindalco Industries Ltd • Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd • Ultra Tech cement Ltd Indian Companies: • Aditya Birla Minacs IT Services Ltd. • Aditya Birla Minacs Worldwide Limited • Essel Mining & Industries Ltd • Idea Cellular Ltd. • Aditya Birla Insulators • Aditya Birla Retail Limited

International Companies: • Thailand: Thai Rayon, Indo Thai Synthetics, Thai Acrylic Fiber, Thai Carbon Black, Aditya Birla Chemical (Thailand) Ltd, Thai Peroxide. • Philippines: Indo Phil group of companies, Pan Century Surfactants Inc • Indonesia: PT Indo Bharat rayon, PT Elegant textile industry, PT Sunrise Bumi Textiles, PT Indo Liberty Textiles, PT Indo raya kimia • Egypt: Alexandria Carbon Black Company S. A. E, Alexandria fiber company S. A. E • China: Liaoning Birla carbon, Birla Jingwei Fiber Company limited, Aditya Birla Grasun chemicals Ltd • Canada: A. V.

Group • Australia: Aditya Birla Minerals Ltd. • Laos: Birla Laos Pulp and Plantations Company Ltd • North and South America, Europe and Asia: Novelis Inc • Singapore: Swiss Singapore Overseas Enterprises Ltd Joint Ventures: • Birla Sun Life Insurance Company • Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company • Birla Sun Life Distribution Company Ltd • Tanfac Industries Ltd [pic] GRASIM INDUSTRIES: Consolidated Net Turnover at Rs. 18404 Crores increased by 8% mainly attributable to higher volumes in Cement business. Cash profit registered a growth of 6% from Rs. 3729 Crores in FY08 to Rs. 938 Crores in FY09 due to lower current tax. Substantial increase in input and energy costs, across all the businesses coupled with increased depreciation and interest expenses, led to decline in Consolidated Profit after Tax from Rs. 2609 Crores in FY08 to Rs. 2187 Crores in FY09. HINDALCO INDUSTRIES: Consolidated sales grew from Rs. 60013 crores in FY08 to Rs. 65625 crores which includes a non-cash unrealized derivative loss of around Rs. 2,381 crores. These derivatives are primarily related to customer fixed-price contracts, other commodities and currency. Aluminum business revenue was Rs. 54306 crores and PBIT at Rs. 25 crores while Copper stood at Rs. 10760 crores with a PBIT of Rs. 374 crores. The performance of the Aluminum business segment of Hindalco standalone during FY09 was severely impacted due to a sharp fall in LME and in downstream product demand. Average LME was lower by 15% than the previous year. The company then increased aluminum business by producing more metal and also improved plant efficiencies. They produced 523 KT of hot metal against 478 KT in the previous year. The Company recorded highest ever primary aluminum production this year and became the first Indian company to produce more than 0. Mn tonnes in a year. The turnover in the aluminum business grew by 6. 4 per cent to Rs. 7,604 crores vis-a-vis Rs. 7,145 crores in the corresponding period of the previous year, on the back of the highest ever metal volumes. SHARE OF NET SALES VALUE [pic] Figure 2 [pic] The entry of Novelis into the Aditya Birla Group has provided a defining competitive edge to Hindalco as a global metals player. Novelis is the only company able to produce premium aluminum rolled products on all four continents where it operates. As the largest producer of flat rolled luminum Products, it ranks as number one in Europe, South America and Asia and is the second largest in North America. In addition to its aluminum rolling activities, Novelis operates bauxite mining, alumina refining, primary aluminum smelting and power generation facilities in Brazil that are Integrated with its rolling plants there. Its technologically sophisticated assets are best-in-class and its manufacturing technology. ADITYA BIRLA NUVO: The Company’s consolidated net income from operations registered 15% year-on-year growth.

The Telecom, Life Insurance, Carbon Black, Fertilizers and Garments businesses were the major contributors. Revenues from its subsidiaries and joint ventures, where the Company has made substantial investments in the past, grew by 12% from Rs. 7,908 Crores in the previous year to Rs. 8,857 Crores. The ‘Growth’ businesses contributed 72% to the consolidated revenues. [pic][pic] 11861. 1 13643. 2 CONSOLIDATED REVENUE MIX CONSOLIDATED REVENUES (Rs Crores) Figure 3 Figure 4 pic] With the acquisition of Spice Communications Limited that operated in Punjab and Karnataka service areas and with the roll out of operations in Mumbai, Orissa and Bihar, Idea Cellular Limited extended its operations to 16 service areas The Company launched two new apparel retailing concepts during the year. Five family stores were opened under the brand ‘Peter England People’ catering to menswear, women’s wear as well as kids wear segments The BPO business is expanding its delivery capacities in India to serve the growing telecom and financial services sectors.

ULTRATECH: The cement production capacity increased from 18. 20 mtpa at the end of FY08 to 21. 90 mtpa on 31st March, 2009, as a result of expansion of capacity at the Company’s Unit at Andhra Pradesh Cement Works (APCW) together with a new split grinding Unit at Ginigera, Karnataka. Net Turnover grew by 16% due to higher domestic sales volume and improved prices in local and export markets. Exports constitute 9% and the Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) segment 7% of the Company’s Net Sales. [pic] ULTRA TECH CEMENT UltraTech Cement Limited has an annual capacity of 18. million tonnes. It manufactures and markets Ordinary Portland cement, Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement and Portland Pozzalana Cement. It also manufactures ready mix concrete (RMC). UltraTech Cement Limited has five integrated plants, six grinding units and three terminals — two in India and one in Sri Lanka. UltraTech Cement is the country’s largest exporter of cement clinker. The export markets span countries around the Indian Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Middle East. UltraTech’s subsidiaries are Dakshin Cement Limited and UltraTech Ceylinco (P) Limited.

The company exports over 2. 5 million tonnes per annum, which is about 30 per cent of the country’s total exports. The export market comprises of countries around the Indian Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Export is a thrust area in the company’s strategy for growth. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW: The cement production capacity increased from 18. 20 mtpa at the end of FY08 to 21. 90 mtpa on 31st March, 2009, as a result of expansion of capacity at your Company’s Unit at Andhra Pradesh Cement Works (APCW) together with a new split grinding Unit at Ginigera, Karnataka.

Sales Volume Table 2 | |FY09 |FY08 |%CHANGE | |Sales Volume (MMT): | | | | |Domestic – Cement |15. 32 |14. 29 |7 | |-Clinker |0. 50 |0. 7 |29 | |Total |15. 82 |14. 66 |8 | |Export -Cement |0. 48 |0. 73 |-35 | |-Clinker |1. 88 |1. 72 |10 | |Total |2. 6 |2. 45 |-4 | |Total Volume |18. 18 |17. 11 |6 | Domestic sales volume rose by 8% over FY08, though total volume was up by just 6% due to a 6 week ban on exports. [pic] Sales Realisation (Net of Excise duty) Table 3 | |FY09 |FY08 |% Change | |Average Realisation (Rs. MT) |3349 |3111 |8 | |Domestic-Cement |3522 |3322 |6 | |Exports-Cement |3100 |2520 |23 | |-Clinker |2306 |1892 |22 | Average domestic realisation improved due to growing demand in East / South India.

The increase in realisation was much lower than the cost increase, which impaired margins. Growing demand in the Middle-East and a firm exchange rate resulted in improved export realisation until Q3FY09. However, export prices started softening from Q4FY09, due to a slowdown in the Middle East. Net Turnover Net Turnover grew by 16% due to higher domestic sales volume and improved prices in local and export markets. Exports constitute 9% and the Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) segment 7% of your Company’s Net Sales. Operating Profit and Margin i) Energy cost per tonne went up by 26% from Rs. 670 in FY08 to Rs. 847 in FY09 due to a substantial hike in imported and indigenous coal prices coupled with higher exchange rate. (ii) Freight and Handling expenses increased by 11% from Rs. 969 crores in FY08 to Rs. 1,071 crores in FY09 given higher volume of RMC and domestic cement sales and increase in rail freight /HSD prices. (iii) Raw Material cost per tonne was up by 11% from Rs. 245 in FY08 to Rs. 272 in FY09, consequent to higher prices of all critical inputs viz. ypsum, fly ash, iron ore and inward freight. (iv) Employee costs escalated on account of revision in compensation structure in line with market, growth in the number of RMC Plants and manpower deployed in new projects, which were in various stages of commissioning. [pic] Interest and Finance Charges Interest cost added up from Rs. 82 crores in FY08 to Rs. 126 crores in FY09 on account of additional borrowing for on-going large capex and re-payment of existing low cost debts, which were financed through high cost borrowing. Depreciation

Depreciation mounted by 36% from Rs. 237 crores in FY08 to Rs. 323 crores in FY09 due to capitalisation of Line II at APCW, grinding Unit at Ginigera and Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) at various locations. During the year, your Company also revised the useful life of some of the assets resulting in depreciation being higher by Rs. 17 crores. Net Profit Net profit for FY09 stood at Rs. 977 crores compared to Rs. 1,008 crores in FY08. [pic] NET EARNINGS (Rs in Crores) Figure 5 [pic] NET WORTH (Rs in Crores) Figure 6 [pic] FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS Table 4 |FY09 |FY08 |% CHANGE | |Net Turnover |6383 |5509 |16 | |Domestic |5803 |5005 |16 | |Exports |580 |504 |15 | |Other Income |104 |101 |3 | |Total Expenditure |4677 |3783 |24 | |Operating Profit (PBIDT) |1810 |1827 |-1 | |Operating Margin (%) |28 |33 |- | |Interest |126 |82 |54 | |Gross Profit (PBDT) |1684 |1744 |-3 | |Depreciation |323 |237 |36 | |Profit Before Tax |1361 |1507 |-10 | |Current Tax |198 |510 |-61 | |Deferred Tax 181 |(17) |- | |Fringe Benefit Tax |6 |6 |- | |Net Profit after Total Tax |977 |1008 |-3 | MOVEMENT OF SHARE PRICES OF THE COMPANY (BSE prices from April 2009 to September 2009) [pic] Figure 7 [pic] ULTRA TECH AND ITS COMPETITORS Table 5 |Last Price |Market Price (Rs Cr) |Sales Turnover |Net Profit |Total Assets | |ACC Ambuja Cement Ultra Tech Cement Shree Cement India Cement Madras Cement Birla Corp Binani Cement Prism Cement Chettinad Cement |809. 40 94. 25 840. 95 1807. 15 113. 50 117. 00 320. 90 65. 45 43. 65 430. 15 |15193. 86 14354. 61 10468. 64 6295. 61 3206. 94 2784. 24 2471. 10 1329. 30 1301. 86 1269. 09 |7474. 15 6281. 71 6436. 96 2740. 57 3470. 78 2538. 50 1809. 70 1497. 32 629. 86 1142. 34 |1212. 78 402. 27 977. 02 577. 97 432. 18 363. 52 323. 51 108. 66 96. 23 -4. 21 |5409. 76 5961. 54 5743. 73 2644. 31 5619. 41 3723. 65 1515. 48 1254. 73 661. 65 1352. 18 | | [pic] CONCLUSION India is fast emerging on the world map as a strong economy and a global power. The Country is going through a phase of rapid development and growth. All the vital Industries and sectors of the country are registering growth and thus, luring investors. And cement industry is one of them. The cement industry is expected to grow steadily in 2009-2010 and increase capacity by another 50 million tons in spite of the recession and decrease in demand from the housing sector.

The industry experts project the sector to grow by 9 to 10% for the current financial year provided India’s GDP grows at 7%. UltraTech Cement, owned by the Aditya Birla Group, plans to make a capital expenditure of Rs. 200 crore for debottlenecking its plants. The process would take a couple of years and would expand the production capacity of UltraTech by 2. 5 million tonnes (mt) per annum. Currently, the Aditya Birla Group, comprising UltraTech and Grasim Cement, has a capacity of 31 mt per annum. UltraTech contributes 17 million tonnes of cement and Grasim 14 million tonnes. Demand for cement was low at around 4. 7 per cent in the first six months of this fiscal.

However, it is expected to rise to about 8 to 9 per cent in the post-monsoon period. The growth would be fuelled by the housing sector and the government’s thrust on infrastructure development. UltraTech is targeting a 12 per cent rise in revenue to Rs. 2,700 crore this fiscal from Rs. 2,400 crore earned last fiscal. The Aditya Birla Group expects a 10 per cent growth in turnover to Rs. 5,500 crore from the previous year’s Rs 5,000 crore. The merger of UltraTech Cement Limited and Samruddhi Cement Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Grasim Industries Limited will result in UltraTech emerging as the largest cement company in India and 10th largest in the world. The merged entity will have the following capacities: 48. million TPA of grey cement across 22 plants, 504 MW of captive thermal power plants and 11. 7 million cubic metres of ready mix concrete across 68 plants. [pic] BIBLIOGRAPHY Website: www. economictimes. com www. ultratechcement. com www. moneycontrol. com www. marketreasearch. com Newspaper and Magazine Articles: 1. ”Navigating Through the turbulence”, The Economic Times 15 December 2008. 2. “You just have to be connected to India”, The Economic Times 20 November 2009. 3. “Global in Attitudes and true to one’s Roots”, The Economic Times 10 August 2009 4. “Hope is back in Business Today”, India Today 8 June 2009. ———————– FY 08-09 15% FY 07-08