Day: April 6, 2018

Management

Management

Unit Title: Organisational Behaviour Level: 5 Learning Outcomes and Indicative Content: Candidates will be able to: 1. Examine and discuss the historical development of management thought and consider the implications in a dynamic and changing world 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 3 1. 5 Discuss the classical theorists, e. g.

Taylor, Fayol, Urwick and Weber Discuss the key contributions of the Scientific, Bureaucratic and Administrative Management Schools to the study of people in organisations Understand and explain the behavioural limitations of these theories Examine Systems Theory and more contemporary theories such as those based on excellence Identify the primary roles, functions and activities of different management levels 2. Discuss the nature and meaning of organisational behaviour and explain its importance to management in positively influencing the human resource 2. 1 2. 2 2. 2. 4 2. 5 Define the meaning of organisation and behaviour Discuss the concept of organisational behaviour and its interface with management Examine the contribution of Mayo, the Human Relations School and behavioural science to the development of management thought Explain the characteristics of organisational culture and identify four main types Explain the various ways in which behaviour is influenced in organisations 3. Analyse the individual’s contribution to organisational behaviour and performance by recognising the importance of personality and perception 3. 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 Identify the individual’s contribution to the organisation and the factors affecting behaviour Compare and contrast the various approaches to personality Explain the major difficulties in studying personality Examine the various measures of personality Explain the process and principles of perception and the problems and distortions that may arise 4. Understand the goals, expectations and roles of individuals within organisations 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 4. Examine the significance of attitudes, their formation, functions and measurement Explain the principles and problems associated with attitude change and describe the impact of behavioural issues on attitudes Identify the internal and external factors relevant to the learning process Compare classical and operant conditioning Examine chain and cyclical theories of learning and discuss their effectiveness Identify the nature and causes of stress and understand the links with personality.

Discuss the role of the manager in handling stressful situations Describe the problems of individuals in work roles, the conflicts that might arise and means available to realise expectations and improved performance 5. Understand the nature and meaning of motivation and examine a variety of content and process theories together with their implications for management 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 5. Define motivation and its examine early developments Explain individual behaviour through ‘need theories’ (Maslow, McClelland, Alderfer), motivation and hygiene (Herzberg) and other behavioural models (McGregor, Schein) Compare and contrast content with process theories including expectancy, equity and goal setting approaches Discuss the implications for management of different theories (including job design) Examine the problems of motivation and links to job satisfaction, morale and effectiveness 6. Explain the nature and meaning of job satisfaction, its relationship to work performance and the various approaches designed to improve it 6. 6. 2 6. 3 6. 4 6. 5 Explain the concept of morale: its nature, measurement, consequences and means of achieving it Examine the concept of job satisfaction and its relationship with performance Identify sources and reactions to frustration and alienation at work Examine the main approaches to improving job design and the principles involved Discuss more recent developments in re-designing the working environment (e. g. tele-working, flexibility, autonomous work groups) 7. Understand the nature and significance of groups in organisations and describe the range of skills required for effective teamwork 7. 7. 2 7. 3 7. 4 7. 5 Explain the nature of a group and distinguish formal and informal types Examine the process of group development and its impacts on individual behaviour Identify the key characteristics of effective workgroups (e. g. norms, cohesion, conformity) and the task and maintenance functions they fulfil With reference to the work of Belbin to examine the roles/skills essential for effective team performance Discuss the nature of team spirit and the characteristics associated with effective and ineffective teams 8.

Discuss the nature of leadership in theoretical terms and outline key variables that determine effectiveness in practice 8. 1 8. 2 8. 3 8. 4 8. 5 Define leadership and compare the differences between leadership and management Explain the nature of leadership and the exercise of power and authority Compare and contrast leadership theories based on traits and styles Examine situational theories including contingency and path-goal models Summarise the variables affecting leadership effectiveness 9. Explain the nature, causes and effects of conflict as well and the strategies, structures and procedures for conflict resolution 9. 1 9. 9. 3 9. 4 9. 5 Explain the nature and types of conflict between individuals, groups and the organisation Examine the causes of conflicts Explain the role of the manager in the management of conflict and its positive and negative implications Identify different strategies for resolving conflict including interpersonal techniques Identify specific conflict situations and compare and contrast alternative procedural arrangements for reducing or resolving conflicts 10. Understand the communication processes in the formal and informal organisation and identify individual, group and organisational barriers to effective communication 10. 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4 10. 5 Examine the nature and scope of communication in organisations Explain the communication process and the use of verbal communication and non verbal behaviours Compare alternative patterns of group communication (networks) and consider the meaning and importance to management of networking Analyse the various barriers to effective communication Describe and explain formal and informal communication systems within and between organisations and the techniques to improve them

Assessment Criteria: • • • Assessment method: written examination Length of examination: three hours Candidates should answer four questions from a choice of eight, each question carrying equal marks Recommended Reading ABE, ABE Study Manual – Organisational Behaviour, ABE Mullins L, Management and Organisational Behaviour (2004), Pearson Higher Education ISBN: 0273688766

The Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock

I agree with you in many ways. Jerusalem is the single most complex city in terms of cultural, religious and historical importance to the world’s leading monotheist belief; Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. You mentioned (and I agree) that the Dome is one of the earliest Islamic monuments that have survived and the original purpose for its creation has been the subject of much debate. You also highlighted that the Dome is so unique for Islam not only because of its artistic decoration but also because of the various important religious narrations that are associated with it.

In this article, the writer notes that the city Jerusalem is one of the most venerated holy locations in the world and that not only Christianity and Judaism, but also Islam has many venerable sites of worship within the city. All three major religions in the world are therefore focused upon this city in the religious meaning of their worship. The writer points out that as such, The Dome of the Rock is an edifice that carries important meaning for the Islamic religion.

The building is also however the focus of many different interpretations in terms of both iconography and purpose. The paper considers these in light of the building’s history and mosaic decorations. The writer concludes that the majesty of the structure of the Dome of the Rock, along with the significance of its artistic decoration surpasses the boundaries of culture. Indeed, the very fact of its intercultural influence indicates the Dome’s significance to a widely intercultural audience.

The Dome of the Rock was built by the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik and completed in 691 AD. While it is the earliest Islamic monument that has survived and one of the most admired ones, the original purpose for its creation have been the subject of much debate from the late Middle Ages to this day. Its location, on the top of Mount Moriah, which is also known as Temple Mount, associates the building with a rich tradition of Muslim, Jewish and Christian narratives. nd the area to which he predicted: “There will not be left here one stone upon another that shall not be thrown down” (Mark 13:2). Today the Dome is mainly perceived in the Islamic world as the commemoration of the marvelous story of the night journey of the Prophet Muhammad (al-Isra’) and his ascension to the sky (al-mi`raj). It is believed that one night, while Muhammad was sleeping near the Ka’ba in Mecca, he was taken by the Angel Gabriel on a legendary steed named al-Burak to al-Masjid al-Aqsa (the farthest mosque) in Jerusalem.

From the rock Muhammad ascended to the sky where he met all the prophets who had preceded him (such as Moses, Josef and Christ), witnessed paradise and hell and finally saw God sitting on his throne circumambulated by angels. The building of the Dome of the Rock surrounds the somber rock by two sets of colonnades and an octagonal exterior wall. The central colonnade made of four piers and twelve columns support a rounded drum that transitions into the two-layered dome, which is more than 20m in diameter.

Light that enters from grilled windows pierced in the drum and exterior wall glitters on golden mosaics and depictions of jewels, and Byzantine and Sassanian crowns in the midst of vegetal motifs. Those decorations have been interpreted as trophies that show the victory of Islam or as depictions of paradise. Quotations from the Koran are inscribed on the arcades and attest the role of Muhammad and of Islam and clarify the perception of Jesus Christ (‘Isa) in Islam as an important prophet but not the son of God or God himself.

The exterior walls were richly decorated with marble and mosaics similar to the interior. In the 16th century though, at the time of the Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent the exterior decoration was replaced by Turkish faience tiles, which in turn were widely replaced by a faithful copy made in Italy in the 1960s. for muslims the site is important not only because of Abraham’s attempted sacrifice of isaac but also because it is believed that the Prophet Muhammad was carried off by the archangel Gabriel on a winged horse to the furthermost place” (el aqsa), from which he rose to heaven. n heaven  Mohammad is said to have met God face to face returnign home the same night bearing with him God’s commandment for his followers. for this reason the El Aqsa mosque became a particularly sacrd site for Islam. the dome of the rock is one of the finest and most ancient buildings of Islam. it gleams both inside and out with rich golds, turquoises and other colors, and has often been compared with a perfect gemstone. the dome is not a mosque, and was not designed to hold a large congregation, it was constructed to cover eh rock and provide a place of prayer and a focus for pilgrim visits.

The three main reasons that make the Dome of the Rock so unique and important for Muslims are the following:- the city it’s built in, its religious meaning and its magnificent architectural design. On a religious level, a host of associations biblical and mostly Old Testament ones were attached to nearly all identifiable places in the area. The place is not only the place where the second Jewish Temple was built, but is also associated with the first Jewish Temple of Solomon. In addition, the Rock was considered to be the place where Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac.

It is in the same location where numerous the important events in the life of Christ are assumed to have happened. For Muslims, the site is important mainly because it is believed that the Prophet Muhammad was carried off by the archangel Gabriel on a winged horse to the furthermost place” (el Aqsa), from which he rose to heaven. This makes the Dome uniquely Islamic, for all the other Old Testament stories mentioned belong to the two other monotheistic religions in Jerusalem, Judaism and Christianity.

Since the association of the Dome with the story of the night journey appeared in texts only several decades later, some theories suggest that the main purpose of the building was to express the victory of Islam in the recently conquered dominantly Christian city. For Muslims, arrival in Jerusalem was an event of immense importance. It was a homecoming of sorts, a physical return to the city of their fathers in religion. Another theory goes as far as to suggest that in response to the political tensions that endangered the pilgrims performing the Hajj to Mecca in those unstable times. The builder Abd al-Malik, also had his own ambitions: he wished to impress his fellow Arabs by showing that Muslims could build magnificent structures to rival the Christian shrines of Jerusalem. Whatever other motives and ideologies are apparent in the Dome of the Rock or were involved in its construction, the Dome has been a religious monument reflecting and representing Islam for centuries. . Muslims pointed out the spots where David, Solomon, and Elijah had prayed. Some could see Enoch’s footprint on the rock. This was one of the places where heaven and earth met; it had helped Muslims to start on their journey to God.

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is a great monument of world architecture and one of the holiest places on earth to Muslims. it . Islam not grafts itself physically onto these ancient traditions in a way that symbolized the continuity and wholeness of the Quraniic vision. And finally on a level of power and domination, the dome stands as a vivid reminder of the triumph f Christianity Jerusalem is the single most complex city in terms of cultural, religious and historical importance to the world’s leading monotheist belief _ Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

Benefits of Strategic Management

Benefits of Strategic Management

BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FOR COMMUNITY BASED PROJECTS 1. 0BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 1. Introduction Strategic management has several benefits in the management of community based projects. It enables the management to move away from budget-oriented planning which is insufficient considering the changing environment in the operations of projects. Therefore, strategic management provides overall direction to the organisation in having and/or pursuing its vision, mission and objectives.

For example, when an organisation wants to distribute malaria drugs in a community they have to sit down and come up with relevant strategies to fulfill the mission. The management must set a vision, mission and goals or adjectives of the task. Some communities might no easily accept donor projects to be implemented in their area. For the management to have a break through, they must study first the values and ethics of the community to be assisted. This will enable them to engage either the community leaders or the political structures such as chiefs and councilors.

The following should be fully spelt out in an organisation for the implementation of strategic management. 2. Vision The vision of the organization, is its dream, where they see themselves in the future. This vision must the crafted by the top management and shared up to operational structures. This is a great benefit in strategic management because it gives the organisation a real direction of what they intend to achieve. If the vision is well absorbed by the members of the organisation, all members will work towards complimenting the desired outcome by the organisation.

Mind Power

Mind Power

Boss of the Mind Most ez Sasson people keep thinking the same kind of thoughts, and visualize the same mental images in an unconscious automatic manner. This means they keep viewing the same movie in their minds, and consequently go on creating and living the same kind of life. You can change the thoughts and images in your mind, which is equivalent to inserting a new cassette into the VCR of the mind. As thoughts create events and circumstances, by changing the habitual thoughts, life’s events and circumstances change too. Most people don’t know or don’t believe that it is possible to change their way of thinking.

The reality of this possibility has never occurred to them. There are people who have the knowledge and make the effort. If they persist in their efforts to become more conscious of their thinking process, and attempt to control and filter the contents of their minds, they realize in a practical and direct way that their thoughts are creative and possess power. Silencing the mind is a higher stage that very few know about, and fewer take practical steps to achieve. If and when one reaches this goal he realizes that he is not his mind or his thoughts, but something beyond.

He realizes and experiences in a very clear and direct manner the reality of his True Essence, and the illusion of what is called “reality”. The ability of silencing the mind is the key to the switch of the mind, enabling us to turn it on and off as we wish. When we are able to switch it off at will, we experience serenity of mind, strength, confidence and happiness. When the mind and its thoughts are quiet, we are able to use the mind in a most effective way. Silencing the thoughts and the incessant, tiring, consuming chatter of the mind makes us enjoy a peaceful and joyous consciousness.

At this stage we become the boss of the mind. Conquering the mind A strong power of concentration makes it easier to free the mind from thoughts. When there are no thoughts to distract, one becomes fully aware and conscious of the true eternal inner being. This is the goal of spiritual seekers, yogis and saints. This is the secret goal beyond every tradition and religion. This secret is yours to live and enjoy, if you strive towards it. The mind is responsible for everything that happens. It is the creator of everything in the world. The world is dependent on the mind for its existence.

When in deep sleep with no dreams, are you conscious of the world? Is someone in a swoon, conscious of the world? No, consciousness of the world happens only when the mind is active. In deep meditation, when the mind is quiet the world seems to disappear. When you master your mind, you master your world. When you are able to silence the mind, you free yourself of negative habits and attitudes. Then the mind cannot influence the way you feel, your moods, and your behavior. When you can silence the mind, at least for a while, you realize that you are not the mind.

It is a sort of energy that occupies your attention incessantly. For someone who encounters this approach for the first time, it may sound weird and silly. Someone who has practiced meditation for some time, or is conversant with the Eastern philosophies will understand and accept these words. From this inner silence you can look at the mind, understand what it is and come to know its nature and how and why it works. While working towards this inner state, the mind usually suggests all kinds of reasons and excuses why it is better not to bring it under control.

It wants to be free and roam wherever it likes. It believes that if it is silenced, life will cease to be. It cannot accept that life can go on without its incessant chatter and inner dialogues. It is false logic, as the mind cannot know what is beyond it. The moment it is silenced it does not participate in what happens after this silence. Then how can it experience a state in which it is absent? It cannot think about a state it has never experienced. There is no vacuum in nature. When the mind is made quiet, something “new” steps in.

It is the Universal Consciousness, Spirit, the creative power, your “inner I”, you can call it whatever you want. It is a power that has always existed, it is in us, it is us. It is our true Consciousness, which we have forgotten. The Power of Thoughts If you keep thinking about difficulties, fears and failure your life will mirror these thoughts. If you keep thinking about your current circumstances you will keep recreating them. Most people get caught in this way of thinking, and consequently attract into their lives the same kind of events and circumstances over and over again.

You can change your thoughts and choose the thoughts you want. This will change your life. You can right now start to think in a different way and paint new, beautiful, and positive images in your mind. You can refuse to look at the old pictures and scenes that fill your mind. You can look at the mental pictures of your choice, even if your actual circumstances are very different from these mental images. You have a projection room in your mind, and you can choose which film to play. In the inner room of your mind you can hang the pictures and paintings of your own choice.

Does a feeling of power surge through you now, as you read these lines.? You can master your life! Thoughts are the inner strings that pull circumstances and situations. You can be the one pulling theses strings and make your life happier and more satisfying. When you are the boss of your mind you have the power to improve your inner and emotional life, relationships and your material and financial status. Some make a mediocre change; some go the extreme and become leaders in politics, education, finance or any other field.

Your ability, and how far you go is dependent on how free you are from being the slave of the mind and subject to its tyranny, and the extent of your ability to choose your thoughts and change the contents of your mind. As mentioned earlier, it is possible to go even further then this, though few do. There are some who aspire to reach the source of the mind and find the switch that turns it on and off. This is the switch of true inner freedom. When they succeed, they realize the secret that many have sought down the ages. They find the silence beyond thoughts, the real freedom.

Becoming the boss of your mind enables you to think about what you want, when you want to. You stop being influenced by outside forces, and become a partner in the creation of your life. When you rise above your mind, you will be able to recognize it as it is, a tool for your use. You will arrive to a point, where you will be able to free yourself from its dictates. This may ultimately lead you to experience a higher state of consciousness, about which all the spiritual traditions of the world have always taught about, and towards which they pointed.

Musical Story of My Life

Musical Story of My Life

The musical story There was once a man with a flute who could play. A number of tunes in an excellent way, But he said, there’s no use of my playing of my flute, for I can’t make a penny with my tootle-ootle-oot. One day, he chanced to meet with a quaint little man. Who played a big tuba. Thus, his story ran. There was once a man with a tuba who could play. A number of tunes in an excellent way, But he said, there’s no use of my playing of my tuba. For I can’t make a penny with my oompah-oompah-oompapah. I have traveled far and wide but never once saw. And while they walk, they meet a tall man. With a big bass drum, thus, his story ran.

There was once a man with a bass drum who could play. A number of tunes in an excellent way, But he said, there’s no use of my playing of my drum, For I can’t make a penny with my boom-boom-boom. And how about me? (a man passing by), I played the cymbals but I really don’t know why from spring to fall and from fall to spring, For I can’t make a penny with my zing-zing-zing. The four joined forces that very same day. And people came from everywhere just to hear them play. And they played together and their music filled the room Tootle-ootle-oot Oompah-oompah-oompapah Boom-boom-boom Zing-zing-zing.