# April 2, 2018 – joyceanndavis

Day: April 2, 2018

An Analysis of Organizational Culture

An Analysis of Organizational Culture

Running head: An Analysis of Organizational Culture An Analysis of Organizational Culture Abstract The following is an observation and analysis of the role an organization’s values play on the development and state of its culture. This analysis is based on five interviews of both male and female workers from a privately owned manufacturing company with annual revenues exceeding a billion dollars.

In forming my conclusions, I will analyze the synthesis of data and draw from the classification and examples set forth in the “Workplace Culture and Socialization section of Volti’s “An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations” Volti (2008) as well as the National Defense University’s publication “Organization Culture” (National Defense University, Undated). An Analysis of Organization Culture

The following analysis focuses on data collected from five individuals of varying tenure and gender employed by a privately owned manufacturing company with annual revenues exceeding a billion dollars. A family of German immigrants in Cleveland, Ohio founded the company seventy-five years ago. The company has since grown from an Ohio based tool and die provider to a global manufacturer of outdoor power equipment with offices in North America, Europe, Australia, and China. In the last twelve months, the executive leadership of this company has undergone a significant succession period.

The office of the CEO has been handed down from the family patriarch, who had held the position for more than twenty-five years and had reached the company’s mandatory retirement age, to his eldest son who was a division president and is currently in his mid-forties. In addition to the office of the CEO, seven out of the nine current executives are set to retire in the next twelve months. The company is undergoing a major leadership transition in a time of great economic uncertainty, particularly for an American based manufacturer.

The market for outdoor power equipment has decreased in the last five years as it is tied closely to housing starts and other real estate indices. The company is faced with a stagnant and highly competitive market in which the ability to make timely and accurate decisions is critical for retaining customers and profitable operating margins. It is also important to note that within the last twelve months, the company has cut their workforce by ten percent and made the decision to close one of its North American factories.

The culmination of these attributes provides the opportunity to assess a previously stable culture in a rare state of transition and discomfort. Organizational Culture Concepts “One of the primary responsibilities of strategic leaders is to create and maintain the organization characteristics that reward and encourage collective effort. ” (National Defense University, Undated) Exploring the contribution an organization’s leadership and their personal values plays in creating behaviors, values, and symbols adopted by the organization as a whole is critical in their ability to set goals that will compliment the culture of their workforce.

Leadership’s ability to identify the dominant culture as well as their responsibility to be aware of subcultures and the reasoning behind their development will determine their success in achieving the goals they set for the organization at large. The way leadership approaches these subcultures and their willingness to address whether the subculture’s attributes are complimentary to the culture advocated by leadership is fundamental to the analysis of this paper’s subject organization.

The organization evaluated in this paper is experiencing a leadership transition and the culture that served to help “cope with its environment” (National Defense University, Undated) previously faces uncertainty. “Leaders at the executive level are the principle source for the generation and re-infusion of an organization’s ideology, articulation of core values and specification of norms. ” (National Defense University, Undated) In this transition period, the lack of identifiable incoming leadership culture has strengthened the existing community of subcultures within the organization.

These subcultures provide a method of informal socialization “that no reasonable amount of formal training can provide. ” (Volti, 2008) In most cases, these subcultures “mesh quite well with the dominant organizational culture because their goals and values parallel those of management. ” (Volti, 2008) However, as stated, this is an organization in transition and there is the potential for countercultures to arise due to the ambiguity of what the behaviors, values, and norms of the new leadership’s culture will be. Schein contends that many of the problems confronting leaders can be traced to their inability to analyze and evaluate organizational cultures. ” (National Defense University, Undated) As this new group of leaders begins to set strategic direction for the next generation of this organization, they must acknowledge, “Difficulties with organizational transformations arise from failures to analyze an organization’s existing culture. (National Defense University, Undated) For this organization to be successful, leaders will need to “correctly analyze the organization’s existing culture, and evaluate it against the cultural attributes needed to achieve strategic objectives. ” (National Defense University, Undated) Focus and Hypothesis The following analysis will undertake the correlation between strategic goals and productive culture to examine the impact the recent changes in leadership is having on the culture and determine the particular behaviors and values that emerge because of this transition.

The same group of individuals has led this company for the past twenty-five years and because of their impending departure, I expect the subjects interviewed to feel uncertainty and an absence of communication around goals. Additionally I am expecting a strong reference to people and family values as core elements of culture due to the company’s status as a family-owned business and a history of lengthy employment by its workforce. I also expect that there will be evidence of high job satisfaction to establish a core component of employee motivation to remain with the company for long periods. Findings

For my research, I interviewed five individuals from different departments within the organization. They were both male and female with tenures ranging from two to thirteen years. In addressing my hypothesis regarding cultural employee motivation for lengthy employment, I observed that four out of the five had held more than one position with the company. Each subject felt that the company fostered an atmosphere of growth of potential. They felt that they were not limited to the same position on an indefinite basis and one subject had held as many as seven different positions in thirteen years.

When asked what was valued about the organization and what kept them there, in all subjects relationships proved to be a strong theme. There was consistent emphasis on the subject’s liking what they did and the individuals they work with on a daily basis. Four out of the five subjects stated that a main driver in what kept them at the company was the opportunities and challenges of a changing organization. One subject went as far to state that the things that frustrate her most about the company are also the things that keep her engaged.

She felt the company fostered a belief that each individual could influence the organization greatly and that many were “addicted” to the challenge. In describing the organization’s traits, each subject made reference of the organization’s family owned status. Four of the five subjects went further to highlight the influence the owning family’s religious beliefs on the values held by the culture. Each subject identified quarterly management meetings that begin with an executive led prayer. This behavior seems to have reinforced the culture as extension of the owning family’s personal values and norms.

One subject described the organization as tight-knit and stated that you know people on a personal level. Another extension of family ownership to culture is the belief that participation in ceremonies and rituals is required. In some organizations of this size attendance at a holiday lunch or company picnic might be viewed as optional, however two of the subjects indicated that they attend company-sponsored events because there is a perception and requirement around involvement and participation.

Their descriptions are reminiscent of the way people refer to attending family weddings and holiday gatherings as a family duty before personal desire. In contrast, though, three subjects stated they attend out of a personal desire to meet new people and learn more about the company. In all five subjects interviewed, there was clear evidence demonstrated that the company’s status as a family owned business and the values held by the family have had a direct influence over the ceremonies and rituals of the company as well as extending to the values held important by the workforce as a whole.

When asked to identify an individual who symbolized the organization, three of the five subjects interviewed named the former CEO who retired last year. The reasoning was consistent across the subjects in highlighting the CEO’s status as the head of the family, conservative, but also his immense value for the company’s people and his treatment of them as extended family. The subject who currently holds the position of Director of Employee Relations referenced the former CEOs agony over recent decisions to reduce workforce and the closing of a facility.

He felt this symbolized the organizational culture belief that the company’s people are its most valued asset. He also said that at times he felt this could be a weakness for the company. He felt the implied family atmosphere made it difficult for leadership to make strategic decisions and that the company often retained individuals who performed poorly but were loyal. The other two subjects identified their manager’s as symbolic but for less flattering reasons. They both assessed their manager’s as “lifers”.

This was the first negative aspect I observed in regards to the long length of employment among employees. They described these individuals as complacent and that these individuals seem comfortable in their ways. One of the subjects referenced his manager’s lack of communication skills as demonstrative of the organization as a whole. Communication becomes a reoccurring theme for all subjects when we begin to analyze qualities in need of changes as well as how departments relate to each other. When asked about inter-department relations, each candidate smiled and laughed but it was more out of discomfort.

Subjects cautiously began with statements that communication and contact was improving across departments but feelings were neutral at best. I found this to be in sharp contrast to the previously mentioned descriptions of “tight-knit” and family based. When asked what one quality they would change, subjects referenced improved communication and clear definition of strategic goals by the executive leadership. One subject stated that the company has an inability to see its flaws and tends to be too detail focused to understand its overarching goals.

The absence of strategic direction at a higher level seems to reinforce the silo-based descriptions given when asked about cross department contact and relations. Although employees function as a big family, there is definitely a presence of subcultures within functional areas due to a lack of binding vision across them. These subcultures and their strength seem to allow for each of the subjects to work well within their own department but feel a lack of identification culturally with other departments. Conclusion Interview evidence supports a strong family based culture exists within the company, which supports my hypothesis.

Due to the stable leadership by the same group of individuals over a lengthy period, employees have developed a personal connection to the organization. I believe that the lengthy tenure of the majority of the workforce also helps because they come to know each other over long periods. The organization has continued growth over the years and its willingness to invest in its people has provided a wealth of opportunities for its employees to advance and grow into different areas, which has led to a high rate of employee retention.

Employees are aware of the organization’s transitional state and this is mostly evident in their desire to see the company set a clear strategic direction from a top-down level. The organization has many opportunities to bring its employees together for celebration and informational purposes yet the subjects interviewed all referenced communication between departments as an issue and something that needs to be improved upon.

This situation has allowed very strong subcultures within functional areas to thrive but they do not seem to be in contrast to the overall values present in the dominant culture. The subcultures are mainly serving as surrogate support systems in the absence of clear overall communication from executive leadership. There is an observable bond between the subjects interviewed for this research and the organization they work for which is clearly demonstrated by the high occurrence of opportunities and challenges being given as reasons for what eeps them there as well as an observable respect and care for their fellow employees present in all interviews. Even though there is concern about the company direction and some ambiguity around goals, each of the subject interviewed seemed to demonstrate faith that the company will work past the current issues and challenges and a willingness to continue working there while it happens. Although this supports my hypothesis that the transition of leadership is having an impact on the culture, it is not as negative as I expected it to be.

They are all confident that what makes the company a great place to work is in large part due to its people and that with a clear direction, the people can accomplish anything that set out to achieve. References Organizational Culture (undated). Strategic Leadership and Decision Making, Part 4, Number 16. National Defense University. [Adapted from National Defense University website (www. au. af. mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch16. html) by M. Brooks-Terry. ] Volti, Rudi (2008). An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.

Short Biography: Noynoy Aquino

Short Biography: Noynoy Aquino

Short Biography: Noynoy Aquino Noynoy Aquino was born Benigno Simeon Cojuangco III February 8, 1960. He was the only son and was third child among four sisters, the most famous sister was the youngest: Kristina Bernadette or Kris Aquino who is now a very popular and prominent star in television and film. Noynoy was a pure breed Atenista from grade school, high school, up to college. He then graduated from the Ateneo University with a degree in Economics.

At that time, his father the famous Senator Ninoy Aquino was the lone voice of freedom against the dictator president Marcos and so they were exiled to Boston because of this. His father decided to return to the Philippines despite threat of assassination to continue the political fight against the dictator. Then of course, he was assassinated sparking the EDSA revolution took place which finally overthrew the Marcos regime.

A while after these events, Noynoy became a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress then he became got into sales in Nike then for Mondragon Philippines. After that, he became part of the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation which was owned by the family. One interesting note about Noynoy Aquino’s life was in danger when he got seriously wounded, getting in the line of fire during the rebellion that was lead by Gregorio Honasan who eventually also became a Philippine senator.

The coup d’etat did not succeed though and Noynoy, recovered. Three of Noynoy’s security were killed and the last one who protected him survived. Five bullets hit him and one of these is still inside his neck. As for the start of his political career he has long been one of the principal members of the Philippine’s Liberal Political party. He soon rose to become Vice Chairman. He is slightly connected with the part of the Liberal Party that is in opposition to President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo because of alleged violations on human rights issues.

He has also been the representative of the second district of Tarlac. He was re-elected to this post and was in service until a few years ago in 2007. Petrol oil and lubricant oil for the Philippine Army was what he most lobbied for as a legislator. He was then elected as a Philippine senator and was part of the Opposition coalition whose main issues was the holding back of the Charter Change or the rewriting of the constitution under the control of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.

It is interesting to note that as a political move during this campaign, he publicly endorsed the bailing out of ex-senator Gregorio Honasan who was then in jail for new charges of rebellion, effectively pardoning the past that almost cost him his life. Now in 2010, Aquino has been approached by a group of activists and lawyers whose group was called Noynoy Aquino for President. This happened after the death of his mother former president Corazon Aquino. After some weeks of giving the possibility some thought he finally formally announced his bid. He is now officially in the running as a candidate for presidency.

Theory on Justice

Theory on Justice

FINAL PAPER THEORY OF JUSTICE, PERSONAL VIEWS ON NATURAL LAW AND MORAL ETHICS What is Justice? How many theories of justice are out there? Whose definition of justice is valid and correct? In today’s society, I believe everyone has their own belief on justice. We develop our theories through what we experience in life and the events that we witness. As we mature, we get wiser we build our opinions and theories on logical and rational thinking. This obviously comes with time and education. Justice is a man-made law that was created to judge and discipline the ones that defy the law.

The law is also a man-made system of rules which is collection of numerous sets of institutions. When justice is carried out in a case, it governs the rules and carries it out to those it serves. I’m a true believer in this theory and I feel that my opinion of justice is rational. Now some will argue is justice fair? Does it define the moral rights for the law? There are several kinds of justice that can be sorted out. From these different types of justice, one person can develop his/her theory and build upon it to guide them through life.

From here, justice brings and immense burden upon society to prove the guilt or innocence of its citizens so that the framework of justice can prevail. My belief in the system of justice deals with morality on fairness and natural law, hence my belief and theory that justice is man-made. One great example that I’ve used before is from the movie, “A Time to Kill” shows how the justice system works in fairness. The general plot here is a lawyer is fighting to save a father on trail for murder that he committed in revenge for the rape of his 10-year-old daughter.

During this movie, the jury plays a big role to decide the fate for the father standing trail. The two men that raped his daughter got off and walked away. In an act of vengeance and determination, the father guns them down. He argues the point was justice served here for these two men that brutally raped a little girl. With determination, he goes to bat for his client. The lawyer displays his compassion and sympathy towards his client. He convinces the jury that the father bent the law for the love and affection of his daughter. The father in the end is found not guilty and is set free.

The way I interpret this is justice has a sense of balance. Here, two wrongs equaled a right. Both cases were found not guilty for a serious crime that was committed. Why is this justice? My answer: fairness and natural rights. Natural rights are rights which are not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of a particular society. This is what I believed that was used to determine the case against the father. In Frederick Mark Gedick’s handout “Justice or Mercy? – A Personal Note on Defending the Guilty”, he discusses morality in defending those that are guilty.

I share the same enthusiasm that Gedicks does when he states, “I believe there is morality in defending even those guilty of the most heinous crimes, a morality that is based not on the lawyer’s role in the system, but rather on her choice to defend a person in need. ” From my example of the movie “A Time to Kill”, here the lawyer understands the father’s actions and what he was fighting for. He knew the good in his client and that if he were in position; he would have done the same thing. One of the main attributes of being a criminal lawyer is to show rationality and morality for his client.

I’ve been an advocate for is how justice was served for the 9-11 attacks on our nation. The Bush Administration has been the most controversial organization because of their response to the 9-11 terror attacks. Surely one can say that we were attacked on your nation’s soil and this is the only way but many argue that we shouldn’t have gone to war. So many young soldiers’ lives have been taken from the fight for your freedom and protection of this nation. As George W. Bush did state clearly at a news conference that, “We will bring them to Justice.

Justice will arrive at their door. ” Right there were powerful words and I still here them echo in my head the day he said it. I guess I can admit that was probably the time where I became a supporter for justice and believing in the justice system. If I were in George Bush’s shoes at the time of presidency, I would bring justice upon them as well to keep the integrity and stability of justice in line. Those who defy and break the law in an immoral and irrational way should be punished and the hard hammers of justice fall upon them.

Justice does and has worked of this nation. With all that this nation is been through with all its wars and horrific events, justice had been able to keep a balance in the world. The way justice is applied and the punishments that are deemed to be appropriate for those who break them may be established and refined, as particular cases are brought to court. Justice has defined and abided by the United States Constitution. I’m very proud of how the United States Constitution has set the parameters for the government that exists today.

The opening Preamble says it all: “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. ” One point made though by Frederick Mark Gedicks that he made in his handout, “Justice or Mercy? ” is the mercy of justice and the courts.

Frederick states that, “The decision to defend a criminal is, at least, a decision to defend the whole of the accused person, including the part of him that is good. ” I have a hard time digesting that theory. How can justice be thrown upon him if we look at the light side of the individual? The point being is justice addresses the negative part of the person’s actions and the crime he committed. The man defied the law and took matters into his owns hands to commit a hideous act. Clearly each act a criminal makes knows exactly what he’s doing and there’s always a method behind the madness.

It’s an irrational and illogical thought process that is devised by this person he ignores that immoral judgment that he is making. This is where the power of justice prevails. Natural Rights are based upon Natural Law. I’m a true advocate of natural law not only because it’s a man-made law but its essence and functionality. Thomas Hobbes opinion on natural law struck me as also an advocate for natural rights. In Hobbes opinion, the only way natural law could prevail was for men to submit to the commands of the sovereign. Another great point that was made about natural law is Jonathan Dolhenty.

Although I differ on some of his main points on how natural law was created from, he gives the history on how natural law theory gave rise to natural rights. Dolhenty states that the natural law theory is of the “practical order” of things and the first principle of the practical order is a principle that directs human acts in all their operations, and it will be concerned with the “good”, since we act in terms of what a least seems good to us. My belief is here one does their own good from what they have come to learn in life. My sense of good may differ from someone lse’s good just by what I think is moral and my way of thinking. On the topic of moral values, I’d like to express my understanding on moral ethics and how it exists in today’s society. I think that this topic stems from what the actions of how Justice is established in the world. From what I’ve come to learn in my lifetime thus far is the choices that we make are in a straightforward matter of personal preference and the actions that spring from them are neither moral not immoral. We then become the subject of moral debate because of the intensions behind them, the results, and their values.

Whether we think an action is moral or immoral will depend on that individual’s values and ethical arguments that they use to decide what is right. In Robin Lovin’s book “Christian Ethics: An Essential Guide”, Lovin gives the purest definition of what ethics is. Lovin states, “Ethics is the study of the choices by which we try to live a good life, is sometimes distinguished from morals, the practices and beliefs by which people live. Ethics then, is about thoughtful, reflective, and self-conscious decisions. ” Some people may raise the question, why are ethics so important? What is the point of ethics?

Ethics helps us appreciate the choices that others make and evaluate the justification they give for those choices. Most of all it improves ones own moral awareness from a conscious examination of values and choices. Some moral choices are straight forward and others are more problematic. In all the readings that have been assigned this semester, Jonathan Dolhenty would be the ideal critic for my theory on justice. Dolhenty would first address my passion and understanding for the natural law. As he states in his handout, “An Overview of Natural Law Theory”, “We can say that the natural law is not made by human beings. Here, Dolhenty argues my theory on where natural law stems from. My response to him is yes it is man-made. Let’s consider the following points. The term natural law should not be used to simply to refer to the laws of nature which form the basis of science. It is the result of applying reason to what happens in nature. Hence, the actions that humans do in society. Our understanding of the way in which nature works is therefore constantly being modified. Dolhenty responds to my theory on how justice is a man-made law that was created to judge and discipline the ones that defy the law.

Why do I believe in that he asks? First I’d turn the spotlight back on him and quote him from his handout, “Since the law must always be some dictate of reason, natural law also will be some dictate of reason. In fact, it is law discovered by human reason. ” Absolutely, the law does dictate reason and authority. I can’t imagine a world without reason. Justice governs the principles of the law and sets out moral standards. The next point that Dolhenty addresses is my understanding of how people develop their own theory on justice and how they learn morals through experience and education.

As humans, we have the natural instincts of enhancing our minds through what we experience in life and what we are taught in education. Dolhenty being an believer and sharing the same enthusiasm as myself also says that, “All students in any grade level need to be taught of all philosophical studies and in the tradition of Classical Realism. ” Without education, without the teachings and discipline from our parents or elders, no knowledge would be passed down. In choosing one of the group issues, I thought the Martin Luther King Jr. ase was appropriate for my theory. After reading through his case, it’s apparently clear why this is a disputable and controversial case. As I stated before on my belief in the justice system, justice must be carried out to the ones who defy it. In Martin Luther King’s case, he did defy the law and took matters into his owns hands. On an admirable note, his main intensions were to stop and decease racial segregation. Being a person that doesn’t believe in racism, this was for a good cause not only for the African American race but also from a Humanitarian stand point.

As stated from the letter to Martin Luther King from the eight clergymen of Alabama, “We expressed understanding that honest convictions in racial matter could properly be pursued in the courts, but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. ” Knowing that Martin Luther King knew what he was doing, it was for a good cause in his belief and he was well aware of the consequences he was going to face. From a moral ethics standpoint, Mr. King was fighting for what he believed in and what he lived for. Again one can conclude that his actions where moral or immoral udgments. It was a different time back in the 1960’s. The world was still growing and evolving from its past wars that changed the world forever. Martin Luther King Jr. believed in his virtues that he expressed to everyone and he wanted to make people believe in him. Theses virtues were positive beliefs that he learned and practiced in his life and what he came to terms with. As Robin Lovin pointed out in his book stating what Aristotle defined on virtues is, “A virtues is a pattern of behavior learned through practice, so that it becomes part of the way a person normally tends to act. This clearly applies to what Martin Luther King, Jr. background stems from. Knowing he was a clergyman, activist and an iconic leader in the African-American civil right movement, he was raised and educated through Theological and Sociological studies. I would have to say in defending Martin Luther King, Jr. that he should not be charged for his actions and defiance to the law. I know I stated in my belief in the Justice system that justice should be carried out to the ones who defy the law there are some key elements here that exist that would justify the innocence on Martin Luther King’s part.

I would remind the District Attorney of what was stated in the United States Declaration of Independence that our forefathers wrote. As Thomas Jefferson elegantly wrote, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that ALL men (this means Black men too) are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. ” With this factual statement hand written from the 3rd President of the United States, this would secure the judgment and decision on Mr. King’s fate.

The courts at the time were probably not thinking of what Robin Lovin wrote. Lovin states in his section on Society that, “More generally, both the church and the wider society have come to accept that in some basic respects all persons are equal. Each deserves to be treated with respect for his or her personal integrity and with care for possibilities that allow him or her to lead a good life. ” Again, with respect to what MLK believed in and what he fought for, Lovin expresses how we should love thy neighbor and respect and care for one another.

Of course with the religious implications that tie into this but at the time of the 1960’s, there was a thick line between men meaning by skin color. Another great statement made by Lovin that applies to this case is how he talks about living in harmony with everyone. Lovin says, “Live in harmony with nature and with other people, understanding that the limits they set on our self-chosen pursuits are not obstacles to a good life but the framework on which it can be built. ” All in all, our quest for understanding human beings and what we’ve learned as a society will continue to grow and evolve.

The moral choices people make are based on many things, but they are rooted in an understanding of the nature of the world. I’m a huge advocate for ethics, not only in the natural world but also in the work environment. The relationship between ethics and the moral life is as simple as between literary theory and the creative writer. Based on people’s immoral actions and irrational thinking, this is the building blocks for justice and how justice is defined in the world we live in today. I stand by my theory of justice and will continue to watch in daily events how justice is perceived and carried out.

Segmentation Variables

Segmentation Variables

What are Segmentation Variables? To understand what segmentation variables in marketing are, it helps to first know what market segmentation is. Market segmentation is the analysis of population demographics so they can be categorized in specific ways. These specific ways of categorization in market segmentation are why segmentation variables are needed and used. Four (4) groups of Segmentation Variables – 1. Geographic segmentation is based on variables such as: Region: this kind of segmentation involves division of customer by continent, country or state etc. •Customer groups can also be formed on the basis of size of population of any particular region. •Population density: also known as urban, suburban, or rural •Climate: various weather patterns that are common to that part of the region 2. Demographic segmentation divides the market into groups based on variables such as: •Age •Gender •Family Size •Income •Occupation •Education •Religion •Nationality •Life-cycle Stage •Social Class 3.

Psychographic segmentation is the process of dividing markets into groups based on variables such as: •Interests •Activities •Opinions •Behavioral patterns •Habits •Lifestyle •Perception of selling company •Hobbies 4. Behavioral segmentation divides a market based on variables such as: •Usage Rate •Product benefits •Brand Loyalty •Price Consciousness •Occasions (holidays like Mother’s Day, New Year and Easter) •User Status (First Time, Regular or Potential) Two (2) possible segmentation variables for the following items are as follows:- a.

Shoes – Demographic and Psychographic; based on age and activities or interests, i. e. tweens or teens would prefer higher priced, well known brand named shoes, whereas people in a much older age bracket would only buy shoes for comfort or as needed, not as a fashion statement. b. Cameras – Demographic and Psychographic; based on occupation and/or hobbies, whatever the primary use of the camera may be. This could be a young person who would use a more highly technical lens camera for hobby or as part of their career goals. . Magazines – Geographic and Behavioral; according to the type of magazine it may be would depend on the region it is being sold in as well as the benefits that would be derived from the purchase of it, i. e. Home and Gardening magazine would give a home owner ideas about decorating etc. d. Hotel Accommodations – Demographic and Psychographic; according to social class and lifestyles, many hoteliers cater accommodations to suit the budgets of their clientele.

Upper scale hotels such as the W Hotel and Plaza Hotels in NYC, or the more moderately priced Motel 6 or Super 8 Motels. Party size and length of stay is also an important variable to consider. e. Recreational Vehicles – Demographic and Behavioral; based on income and user status. Source of References: William M. Pride and O. C. Ferrell, Marketing: Concepts and Strategies, Houghton Mifflin Company, (Paperback – 2006 Special Edition) Albert Loudon and David Della Britta, Consumer Behavior: Concepts and Applications, McGraw Hill, (Paperback – 1993)

Buying Ves Liesing a Car Comparasion and Contrast

Buying Ves Liesing a Car Comparasion and Contrast

Leasing versus Buying a Car New car buyers are usually faced with two options when they decide to purchase a new car : to buy the car or to lease it . For most families and individuals , purchasing a new car is usually a very big decision that has a significant financial setback . Car dealers usually present car buyers with two options when financing a car purchase : to buy or to lease . While both options cost money both in the short term and the long run , leasing is generally easier on the pockets .

On the other hand , leasing does not transfer ownership to the owner , essentially giving the owner nothing of value at the end . What are the advantages and drawbacks of buying as compared to leasing ? What are the situations wherein leasing is the best option for a car buyer ? Leasing a car is cheaper than buying a car based on the monthly payments . Buying a car means that the buyer will have to pay for the entire cost of the car . Usually , this is done in monthly payments over many months with the monthly payments worth more than the cost of the car divided over the payment term .

As the length of the term increases , the increase in Additionally , the owner has to pay the down payment and other costs associated with the ownership of the car . Leasing is more similar to renting where the owner just pays to use the car for the length of the lease term . At the end of the lease , the owner must relinquish the car back to the dealer . While this leaves the buyer with no car at the end of the term , the monthly payments are much less than the payments for buying a car .

This is because instead of having to pay for the cost of the car divided over the length of the term (plus interest , the owner only has to pay for the loss of value of the car during the lease period . A lease is cheaper in terms of monthly payments but buying a car gives the owner possession of the car after the last monthly payment . Thus it is obvious that the eventual ownership of the car is important when choosing between buying and leasing . Buying a car will eventually give the owner a sense of ownership .

Because the car is also under the buyer ‘s possession , it adds to the equity of the buyer . At the end of the lease term , the person availing of the lease has nothing to show for all those monthly payments . If a person decides to get a lease , he or she will have to avail of another lease once the lease term ends if he or she is to continue driving . For the buy option , monthly payments to the dealer stop when they have fully paid for the car . However , that does not mean that the owner ‘s payments on the car stop when the term ends . Usually , by the time…