Day: September 9, 2017

Scientific Attitudes

Scientific Attitudes

Mayurie TwatwunnaphongSeptember 19, 2011 FIN2 The 10 scientific attitudes scientists should possess: 1. Tolerance of uncertainty 2. Curiosity 3. Objectivity 4. critical-mindedness 5. open-mindedness 6. Willingness to change opinions 7. Risk-taking 8. Intellectual honesty 9. Humility 10. Respect for evidence How each attitude helps scientists achieve their goal: 1. By tolerating uncertainty, the scientist accepts that there is always some uncertainty of any experiment or findings. He also strives for greater and greater certainty to prove his uncertainty wrong or correct. . Curiosity in scientists is very important as it is a way they start finding new discoveries to experiment on and to prove. It also challenges the validity of unsupported statements and looks for inconsistencies. 3. Objectivity helps in achieving a scientist’s goal by making any findings not bias. This attitude considers all pros and cons, all evidences available, and evaluates statements by others. 4. Critical mindedness gives a scientists the validities of statements by consulting a number of authorities. This attitude also looks for inconsistencies. 5.

Open mindedness considers all possible options when investigating a problem, which does not limit a scientist to a certain answer. And, also scientists consider and evaluates ideas presented by others. 6. The willingness to change opinions recognizes all hypotheses, generalizations and theories as being tentative. This attitude is important because sometimes a scientist’s opinions can be proven incorrect. This also alters hypotheses of the scientists to accommodate empirical evidences. 7. Being able to take risks in a scientist is important because without risks, nothing great can be accomplished.

This attitude enables scientists to try new ideas even at the risk of great failure. 8. Intellectual Honesty reports all hypotheses even if it contradicts supporting evidence. This helps a scientist to improve and achieve better things. This also acknowledges the work of others. 9. Humility  is required because everyone makes mistakes. A scientist needs to be humble and recognize that there may be better ideas. There are individuals whom he may have to consult to arrive at correct observations and conclusions. 10. . Respect for evidence looks for evidence (empirical approach) to support or contradict statements.

This demands interpretations that fit the evidence and collects as much evidence as possible. Technology assessment is estimating the effect of new products and processes on the-operations of a firm, other firms, society, and theenvironment. It comprehensively and systematically analyze and evaluate the prerequisites for and the positive and negative impact of introducing and applying technologies. Desirability quotient is the number that is called a ratio. It involves obtaining a numerical value for the benefits and risks and dividing the benefit by the risk to get a number.

It is computed by benefits divided by risk. An example of this is how could we determine a numerical value for the benefits of driving automobiles? On the other hand, it would be less difficult to obtain a numerical value for the risks of using automobiles – simply obtain the number of people killed or hurt in automobile accidents. Once we determine numerical values for benefits and risks, we can find the desirability quotient. Large benefits and small risks will result in a large DQ. For example, most people in our country benefit from milk.

Just for illustration let’s suppose that 99% of the population (USA) enjoy the benefits of milk. The other 1% are lactose intolerant. Lactose is a sugar in milk, and some people can’t digest this sugar properly. For this group, milk poses a risk! Using our percentages, we can calculate the number of people in a sample of 1 million who benefit from milk, and who are at risk from using milk. Let’s do the math:  Benefit         0. 99 x 1,000,000 = 990,000 Risk         0. 01 x 1,000,000 = 10,000 Now we can calculate the desirability quotient. DQ = 990,000 ? 10,000 = 99