Month: September 2017

Critically Examine Why There Are More Small Wars in Africa

Critically Examine Why There Are More Small Wars in Africa

CRITICALLY EXAMINE WHY THERE ARE MORE SMALL WARS IN AFRICA African history has gone through three major phenomena that are the slave trade, colonization and decolonization. Each has its positive and negative impacts on the people, the shape of the continent and her economic resources. Slave trade robbed Africa of its best brains as those sold were mainly targeted after challenging the chief an action that by then was a preserve for those with the morale courage to question decisions from the highest authority as it was considered to be taboo.

Colonization introduced new country boundaries and disadvantaged other ethnic groups in terms of development ranging from education to economic gains. Various draconian laws desired to sideline the indigenous people in participating in the day to day running of their own countries were passed by the colonizers . These were unacceptable to the African people. The positive elements are the introduction of the education system, the infrastructure development, and the provision of health facilities plus the overall improvement of the economy at large, which also brought about a modern standard of living.

Decolonization brought independence and the restoration of the rights of the indigenous people. In the process large quantities of Eastern Block, small arms were dumped in the continent that as will be discussed below ignited random fighting causing mayhem in Africa. Soon after the Second World War, the indigenous people embarked on the confrontational approach to liberate themselves. Negotiations with the foreign rulers started in earnest and majority of countries, were granted their independence.

These had strings attached and main ones were the acceptance of the standing borders and the land ownership status quo was to be maintained. Some were denied, and had to take up arms, to liberate themselves. Small wars ensued and these are popularly known as liberation wars. The major suppliers of the arms were USSR, China, Yugoslavia, Romania and the then East Germany. On cessation of hostilities, weapons were not accounted for and later used in the wars under discussion. These wars were meant to overthrow colonial rule that was presided over by presidents or governors from Europe.

However, these were justified and needs no examination to justify the circumstances behind them. On attaining independence, some countries experienced some civil wars and thus the aim of this paper is to come up with a critically examination of the major causes of these disturbances from 1980 to date. Small wars can be defined as those conflicts between the people of one country regardless of external support in which a state of open hostility and suspension of international and national laws exists. It is characterized by the use of non-conventional means of fighting and arms.

In this write up small wars and conflict will be used interchangeable. The ultimate target is mainly to remove the government or to cede a piece of land and create a separate state. However, of late some small wars have been fought specifically to plunder resources. To effectively, examine as to why we have small wars in Africa it is necessary to briefly sample some small wars from the four corners of Africa. In North Africa, the Algerian war started in 1992 when the Army cancelled the electoral process forcing President Chadli Bendjedid to resign and Mohammed Boudiaf replaced him.

A state of emergence was declared and in retaliation, a border post at Guemmar was attacked. The situation became tense when Said Mekhloufi founded the Movement for an Islamic State transforming what was simple some banditry activity into a religious conflict. The causes for this conflict are lack of democracy and the advent of radical Islamists who intends to turn the country into an Islamic state. Conversely, in West Africa, the Sierra Leone conflict began in 1991, initiated by the Revolutionary United Front led by Foday Sannkoy.

The causes are corruption, the mismanagement, and the desire to loot the diamonds. Ten of thousands have been killed and 2 million displaced. In the horn and east of Africa, hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea are because of a border dispute while the Rwanda disturbances was along ethnic lines, all emanating from colonization. Somalia a model state plunged into war because Siad Bare, desperately clung to power for too long until national unity fell apart. Again, the issues of democracy spiced with some dictatorial elements are to blame.

Imaging from a war with Ethiopia aimed at reclaiming the Ogaden, Somalia failed to defend herself against the rival groups. Siad Bare was toppled in a fast moving civil war in 1991, the opposing sides turned their guns on each other, sunken Somalia into total lawlessness. An attempt by the UN to bring peace to Somalia has failed dismally, and to date the country is in a state of anarchy. The Dafur crisis a precursor of the Sudan war pitting the South against the North started in 2003 after a rebel group began attacking government targets citing neglection of the region by the government in Khartoum.

The rebel groups, The Sudan Liberation Army and The Justice and Equality Movement also accused the government of oppressing the blacks in favour of the Arabs. Additionally, the war was a culmination of many years of tension over land and grazing rights between the mostly nomadic Arabs, the farmers from Fur, Massaleet and Zagava communities. In the south, the Angolan civil war was purely caused by the intentions to plunder the precious diamonds while the Mozambiquean war was created specifically to dissuade it from supporting the liberation movement in Rhodesia now Zimbabwe.

In an endeavour to establish as to why we have small wars in Africa it is necessary to draw up a list of the causes of the above cited wars hence the reasons. Lack of development brought about by colonization, mismanagement, corruption, nepotism and centralized control that breeds economic decline thereby creating unemployment are some of the reasons. The non-existence of democracy coupled with dictatorial tendencies, the need to plunder Africa resources, ethnic divisions, religious, and creation including border disputes are among the causes of small wars in Africa.

The issue of inheriting a habit of conquering surrounding chiefs as a way of amassing wealth and enlarging one’s empire as was the case before colonization also needs some consideration. Prior to colonization, African chiefs could amass wealth and expand their areas of influence. This was, achieved by attacking weaker neighboring chiefs. It was a way of life as survival was through subsistence farming and rearing of cattle. The expansion was necessitated by the need for more pasture. The notable examples are the Munhumutapa Empire and the Zulu Kingdom of the 14th and 19th centuries respectively.

The Munhumutapa Empire built the now one wonders of the world “the great Zimbabwe Ruins. ” On the same note, the Zulu kingdom under the great general “Tshaka the Zulu” caused the Muficane and defecane. The two simple means the movement of people from the south to the north and vice versa. The growth of the two were mainly made possible by the charismatic leaders of that time whose management styles made it possible to annex other areas and put them under control. On colonization, the chiefs were stripped of their powers to allocate land and other responsibilities.

This did not go well with the Chiefs and on attaining independence, some claimed back their powers. In some situations, they were granted, while others were denied. Owing to the desire to rule and greed coupled with the inheritance syndrome of attacking and annexing other areas some conflict erupted. The unaccounted for AK rifles alluded to elsewhere in this paper were used to initiate the first battles. Subsequently, due to the dare need to loot African resources, weapons which were used in the wars were provided by multinational companies.

These were directed to the disgruntled leaders who in the majority, if not all cases embarked on senseless wars that had a devastating effect on Africa. It therefore follows that those involved were not after meeting the needs of the majority of the people but due to greed and power hungry. This, therefore becomes, one of the reasons why we have more wars in Africa. Additional to this, the other factors are now general knowledge due to civilization and these are, failed political institution resulting in corruption and nepotism, which leads to economic decay giving birth to high rate of unemployment.

Owing to this Africa houses the poorest countries in the world. Such a state of affairs is not because of lack of resources but due to mismanagement that leads to the break down of state structures. Civil strife becomes a norm and tension rises, culminating to small wars. The decision to partition African during the Berlin conference did not take into considerations the existing boundaries. Although these boundaries were not permanent but they at least existed.

The kingdoms and Empires were set up along rivers and on high grounds . The settlement within these were in accordance of the ethnic groups. The advent of colonization did not recognize these boundaries and some ethnic groups were divided into two by just a river or an imaginary line that was used as a boundary. Such a status quo was maintained through out the period of European rule. On attaining independence, some sort of freedom prevailed that gave room for land claims to be instituted and demand for boundaries changes ensued.

Some issues were presented to the United Nations for arbitration and were amicable solved while others resulted in war such as the Ethiopia-Eritrea border conflict. An international commission decided that a silver of land claimed by Ethiopia should be part of Eritrea. It therefore follows that the demarcation was to have been the corner of a peace settlement . However, Ethiopia refused to cede the land. This war is a typical example of a boundary and land claim dispute culminating into a conflict which killed more than 70000 people. This brings us to the second reason why there are more small wars in Africa.

Settlement in Africa before colonization were along ethnic lines with a well pronounced hierarchical order , Some ethnic groups reigned over others due to discrepancies in wealth and natural military ability . In Rwanda the Tutsi, were said to be superior and ruled the Hutus while in South Africa the Zulus had authority over the Ndebele and Xhosas . Some colonizers suppressed this while others promoted it. The Belgian and the German introduced ethnic identity cards in Rwanda. Similarly the Portuguese in Mozambique introduced a pass system which upgraded the Tshanganas to a status above others ethnic groups.

However, since these groups were not closed societies. Intermarriages and social interaction over years solidified a single culture, language, and shared many beliefs. This coupled with the strong-handed rule by the colonizers kept the ethnic groups in harmony, although others were harboring ambitions to revive their reign. The attainment of Independence provided such opportunities hence the outbreak of the two wars, one in 1959 and the other in 1994 pitting the Tutsis against the Hutus. The hatred is so deep rooted that it may not be a surprise to witness yet another, genocide in the near future.

Failed political institutions due to the inability of the leaders was cited as a major cause of small wars in Africa. 4 Notable examples are the Ugandan scenario under Idi Amin and Mobutu Seseko of the then Zaire now Democratic Republic of Congo. The obtaining factors were the lack of democracy and the centralized control caused by overstaying in power. All these are good ingredients for corruption and nepotism resultant in the break down of services and economic decline. This creates unemployment that breeds uncertainty and poverty within the people.

A poverty-stricken nation is prone to abuse and is prepared to take anything that will make them survive. Greed leaders will capitalize on such situations and recruit young men and women for military training. This was how the Ugandan war of the early eighties started. On overthrowing the government in Uganda, before the National Resistance Army could consolidate itself in power another war, which was based on ethnic lines, started. The rebel leader is Alice Lakwena who encouraged her followers to fight in the name of God. Her rebel organization is known as the Lord Resistance Army.

They strongly believe that through the power of the Lord, enemy bullets were not going to harm them. However, majority were killed as they untactful advance towards Ugandan Army. They also demanded an equal representation in government. Currently the war is ongoing with no possible solution in sight. The obtaining suffering of children and women is unbearable to say the least. Africa has resources in abundance and these are required in the developed countries for their industries. The most sort after is diamond and oil. Consequently, control for these resources becomes the desire for both foreign companies and African money mongers.

Proceeds from the sale of these resources may be used in the purchase of arms of war to continue defending the oil and diamonds fields. Currently Africa has witnessed three major wars, which were caused by the need to plunder her resources. These are the Angolan war of 1975-2001,5 Sierra Leone civil war of 1991-2006 and the Sudanese war of 1983-2005. However, the Sudanese war has other complementary causes such as the secessionist of the southern part, ethnic division of the Arabs of the North versus the black Africans of the south.

This crops up due to relative lack of political rights and the overall lower level of economic development thereby exacerbating the conflict in the southern part of Sudan. However, hostilities have ceased and a government of national unity is in power pending a referendum due next year to determine the secessionist of the south by a vote. The other reason why we have small wars in Africa is the creation to meet special needs such as destabilization. A typical example was the formation of the Mozambique National Resistance Movement.

It was formed to launch offensive operation against Mozambique to dissuade it, initially from supporting the liberation movements in Rhodesia now Zimbabwe and later in South Africa. Similar characteristics exist in the DRC conflict in which the Uganda and Rwanda claim to be pursuing armed groups as well as punishing that country for supporting the Interahamwa who were being accused of causing havoc in the two countries. The love for minerals cannot be ruled out; while corruption and poverty brought about by Mobutu’s 30-year autocratic rule is obvious.

Conversely, unemployment is rife and the young males who are the best recruits for a rebellion have nothing to loose in terms of properties and are more likely to enlist. Diverge religious beliefs is yet another cause of the small wares in Africa. The arrival of Afghans in Algeria sparked the development of radical Islamists who have exacerbated the fighting fore the introduction of an Islamic state. Reasonable numbers have been recruited into the ranks of the Armed Islamists connected to the extremist Takfir Wal Hijra. They reject democracy on the understanding that it dose not exist but what exists is Allah.

To prove their position they issued the following quoted statement. “There is no democracy because the only source of power is Allah through The Koran, and not the people. If the people vote against the law of god, this is nothing other than blasphemy. In this case, it is necessary to kill the non-believers for the good reason that they wish to substitute their authority for that of God” The quotation justifies the fact that the Algerian war is a religious one. Some elements of religious misunderstanding may also, be traced to the Sudan conflict in which the two belligerents are followers of two distinct beliefs.

The South is mainly Christian while the north is more of Islam. Although it is not more pronounced, it is still a cause, which needs to be addressed together with other elements. The issue of ceding a piece of land is yet another cause, albeit at a low level. The Katangise People’s Army attempted to fight for the secessionist of Katanga province in Zaire but failed due to a number of factors chief among them being the terrain, external support for morale and material and the lack of a focused leadership. They then abandoned the idea and joined Joseph Kabila during his fight that was supported by Uganda and Rwanda.

Similarly, the Kaprive Liberation Army in Nambia had the same goals of ceding the Kaprive Strait but these were unattainable owing to the same reasons as above.. The other wars were not examined separately because they have similarities with those discussed. These are the Liberian, the Chad and the Sahara Arab Republic, which is fighting for secessionist from Morrocco. Interesting, is the Liberian war, which was mainly caused by the non-existence of democracy. On this war, colonialism cannot be blamed because the country was never foreign ruled. However, it is vital to reckon that the released slaves were settled in Liberia.

Due to historical frustration, it is believed the war was because of greed. The four main corners, including the central region of Africa have been examined. The main reason why we have small wars in Africa particularly in Algeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Rwanda, Angola and Mozambique in the north, west, central, east and south respectively are religious disagreements, the need for resources, ethnic differences and the failure of political institution. Mismanagement that breeds corruption, nepotism and the general decline of economies resulting in high unemployment percentages is to blame.

Such a situation makes the youth idol and become vulnerable to recruitment into rebel ranks, as they have nothing to loose. Lack of development is also a cause for concern while non existence of democratic rule appears to be the number one enemy for Africa. However there are signs of improved acceptance of each other’s views. This scenario coupled with the ability of other leaders to relinquish power {eg Nelson Mandela of South Africa, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia and Joaquin Chissano of Mozambique} is a welcome development that may bring an end the conflicts of Africa.

BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Chingwedere Enias. People Making History Book 4 MAGAZINES Globe Boston. Small Wars Journal, Fester in Africa’s Horn Muchemwa Henry. Focus on Africa. AU Peacekeeping Force in Dafur ARTICLES Ahuja Paul. Somalia Watch, US Admits Slaughter in Somalia Wikipedia. Period 1991-2000 NEWSPAPERS Ken Flower, The Chronicle dated 26 Nov 1981 The Secrets of The Rhodesian War

Nestle Company

Nestle Company

Background The dairy products at Nestle are a big driving force for the growth of the company’s sales. With the health kick of the many individuals around the world, it pushes the innovator and renovators of Nestle to reach new height in finding better and healthier products for their consumers. More recent, dairy division became a big portion of the company’s earnings, so it would be best for Nestle to focus a big portion of their core competences and resources on the fast growing dairy division. Which leads us into the most recent yogurt produced by Nestle’s, which is the LC1. I. Problem statement

Nestle maintain clear cut policies on where decisions will be made and what roles corporate and host country managers will pay. II. Statement of the objectives A major responsibility of Nestle’s corporate management is to give the company strategic direction. To do this, it decides in which geographic areas and to which products it plans to allocate efforts. III. Areas of consideration Internal environment Strength • Strong Brand Name and Local Brand Names Owned • Large Portfolio • Economies of Scale • Substantial Operating Cash Flow • Environmental Image • Strong R Team Weaknesses Little Differentiation between Nestle Brands • Too Much Products distract from Core business • Large Workforce Difficult to Manage • Subsidiaries Difficult to Manage • Rising Prices of Raw Materials External environment Opportunities •Further Development of Global Brands •Health Based Products •Partnerships & Farmer Support •Emerging Markets Penetration Threats •Global image may harm all brands if one brand fails •New Diet Trends •Recent Acquisitions Make Company Vulnerable •Rising Prices of commodities…

The Fraud Triangle

The Fraud Triangle

One of the older and more basic concepts in fraud deterrence and detection is the fraud triangle. The fraud triangle is also known as Cressey’s Triangle, or Cressey’s Fraud Triangle. Cressey’s Fraud Triangle gets its name from Donald Cressey. Cressey was one of the “nations leading experts on the sociology of crime”. He authored a few books including Other People’s Money, Theft of the Nation, and co-authored Principles of Criminology with Edwin H. Sutherland. Cressey is honored by many anti-fraud organizations, including the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners.

The fraud triangle seeks to explain what must be present for fraud to occur. There are three basic things that must be present in order for fraud to occur: opportunity, incentive/pressure/motivation, and ability to rationalize. Without these three things, fraud is unlikely to occur (www. examiner. com). Opportunity is the element over which business owners have the most control. Limiting opportunities for fraud is one way a company can reduce it. The opportunity to commit fraud is possible when employees have access to assets and information that allows them to both commit and conceal fraud.

Employees are given access to records and valuables in the ordinary course of their jobs. Unfortunately, that access allows people to commit fraud. For instance, a cashier can steal money out of the cash register because it is there. If the cashier was required to drop all cash in to an underground safe to which he did not know the combination, opportunity would not exist (www. allbusiness. com) Motivation, is a pressure or a “need” felt by the person who commits fraud. It might be a real financial or other type of need, such as high medical bills or debts.

Or it could be a perceived financial need, such as a person who has a desire for material goods but not the means to get them. Motivators can be nonfinancial. There may be high pressure for good results at work or a need to cover up someone’s poor performance. Addictions such as gambling and drugs may also motivate someone to commit fraud (www. examiner. com) The third leg of the fraud triangle is rationalization. Embezzlers do not view themselves as criminals. They see themselves as ordinary, honest people who are caught in a bad set of circumstances. Rationalization occurs when an employee justifies why they commit fraud.

Common rationalizations include making up for being underpaid or replacing a bonus that was deserved but not received. A thief may convince himself that he is just “borrowing” money from the company and will pay it back one day (www. allbusiness. com) Why is the Fraud Triangle so important? The fraud triangle is one of the most effective and important procedures a CPA or auditor can use when determining the existence of fraudulent behavior or activities in a company. This concept constitutes the science of forensic accounting and help to uncover any illegal activities.

Implementation of a comprehensive fraud prevention plan is vital to the financial health of any business (www. enotes. com) CITATIONS “Employers: Learn The ‘Fraud Triangle’ To Prevent Fraud. ” Accuscreen. N. p. , n. d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. . “Financial Fraud 101: Understanding The Fraud Triangle. ” Examiner. N. p. , 17 July       2009. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. . “The Fraud Triangle And What You Can Do About It. ” All Business. N. p. , 30 Nov. 2007. Web. 12 Sept. 2011. . “World of Forensic Science. ” Enotes. N. p. , n. d. Web. 11 Sept. 2011. .

Agricultural Marketing Essay

Agricultural Marketing Essay

Opportunities & Challenges For “Agricultural Marketing” By: Ms. Subina Syal Preface The term agricultural marketing is composed of two words -agriculture and marketing. Agriculture, in the broadest sense means activities aimed at the use of natural resources for human welfare, and marketing connotes a series of activities involved in moving the goods from the point of production to the point of consumption. Specification, the subject of agricultural marketing includes marketing functions, agencies, channels, efficiency and cost, price spread and market integration, producers surplus etc.

The agricultural marketing system is a link between the farm and the non-farm sectors. In India Agriculture was practiced formerly on a subsistence basis; the villages were self-sufficient, people exchanged their goods, and services within the village on a barter basis. With the development of means of transport and storage facilities, agriculture has become commercial in character; the farmer grows those crops that fetch a better price. Marketing of agricultural produce is considered as an integral part of agriculture, since an agriculturist is encouraged to make more investment and to increase production.

Thus there is an increasing awareness that it is not enough to produce a crop or animal product; it must be marketed as well. Agricultural marketing involves in its simplest form the buying and selling of agricultural produce. This definition of agricultural marketing may be accepted in olden days, when the village economy was more or less self-sufficient, when the marketing of agricultural produce presented no difficulty, as the farmer sold his produce directly to the consumer on a cash or barter basis. But, in modem times, marketing of agricultural produce s different from that of olden days. In modem marketing, agricultural produce has to undergo a series of transfers or exchanges from one hand to another before it finally reaches the consumer. The National Commission on Agriculture, defined agricultural marketing as a process which starts with a decision to produce a saleable farm commodity and it involves all aspects of market structure of system, both functional and institutional, based on technical and economic considerations and includes pre and post- harvest operations, assembling, grading, storage, transportation and distribution.

The Indian council of Agricultural Research defined involvement of three important functions, namely (a) assembling (concentration) (b) preparation for consumption (processing) and (c) distribution. Definition Marketing can be defined as the commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producer to consumer. Marketing is not just the final transaction of receiving a check. The acts of buying supplies, renting equipment, paying labor, advertising, processing and selling are all part of a marketing plan. Marketing should begin as the first ideas for an enterprise start to bubble.

Some say marketing is everything a business does, that it is the most important aspect of any business, and the only action that results in revenue. Agricultural marketing is the where the producer, the processor, the distributor and the consumer meet. Introduction The importance of marketing in agriculture is very well illustrated by saying, “that a good farmer has one eye on the plough and the other on the market”. This is true when agriculture is mainly for subsistence; and now, even Indian agriculture is becoming commercialized. In these days of commercial agriculture, it will be more fit to say, “a good farmer has only is hands on the plough but the eyes on the market Since agriculture constitutes a major part of the economy, marketing of agricultural products also assumes considerable importance in our context. Marketed surplus is the amount of agricultural produce that is brought to the market for sale after what is retained by the producers for their own consumption. Hence it will be less than total production. It is difficult to give a correct estimation of marketed surplus, since it differs according to crop, place, season and general state of the economy.

Marketing finance is also important since the small producer will experience difficulty in waiting for payment from the wholesale buyer, if the time lag is too long. Proper storage and handling facilities are important because otherwise, the produce will perish and become unmarketable and unusable. Challenges for Agricultural Marketing The present system of agricultural marketing is not well organized and the farmers have to depend largely on the middlemen for the disposal of the farm’s yield who have no hesitation in taking advantage of the farmer’s dependence upon them.

The real evil is the tendency of these intermediaries who exploit the ignorance and helplessness of the farmers to increase their own profit. The malpractices in the present system of agricultural marketing are very well known. The Rural Credit Survey Committee described the position as follows: “while standards of marketing have improved, in most of the relatively few regulated markets which have been established, a number of malpractices still exist even in them since personnel and enforcement are two great problems, not always sufficiently attended to, much less solved.

Sometimes, the malpractices take fresh lease of unauthorized life just outside the market, for the private interests are strong, the advantages of evading strict regulation are many and the producer is in no position to seek eventual advantage and protection from law at the cost of the immediate disadvantage involved in the loss of powerful customers, which are also sources of credit and finance. Moreover, there is a very great lacuna that no control at all is exercised over village sales, in which the primary producer is literally, legally and in practice at the mercy of the village trader”.

Frequently large samples are also taken by the buyers with payment. The cultivators are not paid for them even when no sale is affected. Generally the transactions take place on a sample basis. Consequently, the producer does not get the full worth of his produce. The reputation of Indian agricultural producers in the world market is low. The villagers have practically no contact with the outside world not are they in touch with the trend of market process and they mostly depend on hearsay reports received form the village bania who is always busy in earning profits from buyers by making them fools to the ignorant villagers.

In India, the following are some of the common defects agricultural marketing: 1. Lack of organization, 2. Forced sales, 3. Presence of middlemen, 4. Numerous market charges, 5. Market malpractices, 6. Lack of standard weights and measures, 7. Inadequate storage, 8. No standardization of price and quality, 9. Lack of marketing finance, and 10. Want of proper market information. Requisites of good marketing ? In the first place the quality of produce should be good.

Good quality can fetch better price and confidence which can be assumed by using best seeds, by adopting correct methods of harvesting by grading the product by storing it well and avoiding malpractices like adulteration and misrepresentation etc. ? The second essential of good marketing is the staying power of the seller. Therefore, the agriculturists may have the staying power to sell so that they may get better prices after the harvest. The peasant should, therefore, have enough reserve to pay land revenue and meeting other needs. ? The third essential of a good marketing is the good means of communication and transport facilities. Fourthly, there should be conducted markets at convenient distance, and lastly, good marketing eliminates exploitation of the seller and reduce the number of intermediaries. Facilities Needed for Agricultural Marketing In order to have best advantage in marketing of his agricultural produce the farmer should enjoy certain basic facilities. 1. He should have proper facilities for storing his goods. 2. He should have holding capacity, in the sense, that he should be able to wait for times when he could get better prices for his produce and not dispose of his stocks immediately after the harvest when the prices are very low. . He should have adequate and cheap transport facilities, which could enable him to take his surplus produce to the mandi rather than dispose it of in the village itself to the village money-lender-cum-merchant at low prices. 4. He should have clear information regarding the market conditions as well as about the ruling prices, otherwise may be cheated. There should be organized and regulated markets where the farmer will not be cheated by the dalals and arhatiyas. 5. The number of intermediaries should be as small as possible, so that the middleman’s profits are reduced.

This increases the returns to the farmers. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS: There are several challenges involved in marketing of agricultural produce. There is limited access to the market information, literacy level among the farmers is low, multiple channels of distribution that eats away the pockets of both farmers and consumers. The government funding of farmers is still at nascent stage and most of the small farmers still depend on the local moneylenders who are leeches and charge high rate of interest. There are too many vultures that eat away the benefits that the farmers are supposed to get.

Although we say that technology have improved but it has not gone to the rural levels as it is confined to urban areas alone. There are several loopholes in the present legislation and there is no organized and regulated marketing system for marketing the agricultural produce. The farmers have to face so many hardships and have to overcome several hurdles to get fair and just price for their sweat. GLOBALISATION: The globalization has brought drastic changes in India across all sectors and it is more so on agriculture, farmers and made a deep impact on agricultural marketing.

It is basically because of majority of Indians are farmers. It has brought several challenges and threats like uncertainty, turbulence, competitiveness, apart from compelling them to adapt to changes arising out of technologies. If it is the dark cloud there is silver lining like having excellent export opportunities for our agricultural products to the outside world. AGRICULTURAL MARKET REFORMS: Below are the certain measures that can be affected to bring out the reforms in agricultural marketing so as to ensure just and fair price for the farming community. Provide loans to the farmer at low rate of interest so that they will be freed from the clutches of local moneylenders who squeeze them. It is said that farmer in born into debt, lives in debt and dies in debt. Right from the beginning of the life, the poor farmers approach money lenders for investing into cultivation who levies very high rate of interest and who takes away the maximum amount of the share from the produce. In case if the crop fails due to natural calamities then the situation would be worse as the farmer is not in a position to pay his loans.

And ultimately he is forced to sell the land at throw away price to the money lender. • It is essential to provide subsidized power supply and loans to the farmers as the expenses towards power consumption takes considerable amount of investments. • Generate a new distribution network that connects the farmers directly to the consumers to get maximum returns as the present channel of distribution involves multiple mediatory who take away the major portion of profits which otherwise the farmers is supposed to get. Elimination of the existing loopholes in the present legislations is warranted. • There should be stringent action against black marketers and hoarders who buy the stocks from farmers at cheap prices and create artificial demand and then sell the stocks at higher prices. • Creating local outlets at each village where the farmers sell their stocks directly to the consumers or the authorized buyers at fixed prices would help to a great extent. Intervention of government in this network is essential to bring the fruits to the farmers. At the village level there should be counseling centers for farmers about the worth of their stocks so that they can get fair price. The crucial role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) is needed in this context. • The existing legislations are outdated and are not in tune with the changing trends and technological inventions and the same need to be updated forthwith. • The retail revolution has brought several changes in the retail sector where the retail giants buy in bulk directly from the suppliers and sell to the consumers directly and in this process they pass the benefits to the consumers as well.

In the past the consumers were paying more for less as there were many channels of distribution system and now the consumers pay less for more. • The government is already fulfilling the objective of providing reasonable prices for the basic food commodities through Public Distribution System with a network of 350,000 fair-price shops that are monitored by state governments. It is more effective in states like Punjab, Haryana and some parts of Uttar Pradesh. And the same needs to be strengthened across the country. Government should levy single entry tax in stead of levying multiple entry taxes either directly or indirectly for the transactions and activities that are involved in agricultural marketing such as transportation, processing, grading etc. , as it would benefit both farmers and consumers directly. HOW TO GET FAIR AND JUST PRICES FOR FARMERS? Direct marketing of the agricultural produce is the need of the hour. Efforts may be made to provide facilities for lifting the entire stock that farmers are willing to sell with incentive price. There should be provision for storing the stocks such as godowns and warehouses.

It helps the farmers to hold the stocks till the prices are stabilized. Usually immediately just after the harvest the prices would be low and if the farmers are patient in holding the same for some time it would fetch better prices. The brokers play the games during the trading of the agricultural stocks which the farmers do not know and realize because of improper information about the market prices. The brokers without any investment and with their negotiation skills transfer stocks by buying at low prices and selling at higher prices to the other end.

The farmers need to be educated in this regard. There should be all-round rationalization and standardization of the prices through legislative means. Presently there is vast gap between the marketing strategies of agricultural produce in India and abroad and the same needs to be bridge. Remove the various malpractices prevalent in the present system. There is need to set up marketing committees which has the representation of growers, merchants, local bodies, traders and nominees from the govt.

There should be collective and integrative efforts and energies from all quarters for ensuring just and price for farmers. Conclusion Agricultural Marketing, rather than production, is going to be the key driver of the agriculture sector today, thanks to the new market realities posed by the increasing accent on globalization, liberalization and privatization of the economy. Market-driven production is an idea whose time has come. With the gradual shifting of agricultural system from subsistence to commercial one, there is increasing focus on Agripreneurship and Agri-marketing.

It is the need of the time to tune up the Agricultural Marketing System of the country to enable the farmers to face the new challenges and reap the opportunities as well. This summons us to revisit our traditional statistic policies and laws and bring about the requisite reforms in the sector. The imperatives of the integration of the Agricultural Marketing System of the country are increasingly posing new challenges in respect of each of the components of the system such as- cleaning, grading, quality certification, packaging, storage, transportation, financing, wholesaling and retailing etc of agriculture produce.

The subtlety of the management of Agricultural Marketing issues today calls for high degree of professionalism to measure up to the expectations of different stakeholders. Internal reforms in traditional agricultural marketing system of the country have become indispensable to enable our farmers to tap into the external market of the post-WTO regime. Now that many states have introduced some reforms in agricultural marketing, the need of the hour is to consolidate the gain of reforms through appropriate policies and plans. The existing trade barriers have to be removed for evolving a common market in India.

There is a need to give a push to processing and value addition. Cost effectiveness through integrated supply chain management has become sine qua non in the present world trade environment. This demands doing away with the dysfunctional aspects of the present regulated marketing system by putting in place a responsive market information system, need-based price discovery mechanism, measures to solve the problem of economies of scale at the grass root level by promoting contract farming, direct marketing and private investment in agricultural marketing infrastructure.

Congenial investor-friendly economic environment has got to be evolved to attract the private investors to invest in agricultural marketing sector for bridging the existing gap in the agricultural marketing infrastructure of the country. Farmers should get freedom of choice to use a physical market giving them services for the fees paid by them. This could be possible through dismantling of the monopoly of the Government-owned markets and permitting setting up markets in the private sector, thereby bringing healthy competition in the sector.

This also calls for the traditional Government mandies to be spruced up in terms of their management, infrastructure, service delivery, customer-friendliness through fine-tuning of their internal processes. The other areas of reforms such as promotion of grading and standardization, market-led extension, rationalization of market fees, public- private partnership in owning and management of markets etc will go a long way towards pushing the system to the next level of excellence.

The focus on reforms calls for a paradigm shift in our approach. There is no doubt that in any marketing there is a motive towards profit involved and at the same time the marketing is to be based on certain values, principles and philosophies such as offering just and fair prices to the farmers who toil hard to till. Bringing necessary reforms coupled with proper price discovery mechanism through regulated market system will help streamline and strengthen the agricultural marketing.

In order to avoid isolation of small-scale farmers from the benefits of agricultural produce they need to be integrated and informed with the market knowledge like fluctuations, demand and supply concepts which are the core of economy. Marketing of agriculture can be made effective if it is looked from the collective and integrative efforts from various quarters by addressing to farmers, middlemen, researchers and administrators. It is high time we bring out significant strategies in agricultural marketing with innovative and creative approaches to bring fruits of labor to the farmers.

References Websites: http://agmarketing. extension. psu. edu/ http://www. world-agriculture. com/agricultural_marketing/agricultural-marketing. php http://www. ccsniam. gov. in/agricultural-marketing. html http://www. delagrimarket. org/agriculturalmarketing. htm http://www. coolavenues. com/know/mktg/ http://www. ces. purdue. edu/sa/famfarm/market. html Books: | |Encyclopedia Of Agricultural Marketing- Concepts Issues Problems & Prospects (Vol. 1) Rural & Agriculture Marketing: Opportunities, Challenges & Business Strategies

Inventory System

Inventory System

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROPOSAL Name of Proponents:Geraldine S. Balmeo, Juan Miguel S. Gilbuena School Year/ Trimester: 2011-2012 / 2nd Trimester Proposed Title: Wyeth Key Account Managers Inventory Monitoring System Area of Investigation: Wyeth Philippines is a dynamic organization that currently employs more than 700 people in its local operations. The Wyeth story began in 1860 when brothers John and Frank Wyeth opened a drugstore in Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Then in 1932, the brothers sold their business to American Home Products Corporation of New York (AHP).

On March 11, 2002, AHP changed its name to Wyeth to reflect its vision of becoming the world leader in research-driven pharmaceuticals. In 1958, AHP collaborated with A. T. Suaco and Co. to establish the first Filipino-American joint venture in the pharmaceutical industry. That operation started inside a single story building along Rizal Avenue. Eventually Wyeth-Suaco Laboratories, Inc. (Wyeth-Suaco) built its first nutritionals plant in 1964 along Chino Roces Avenue in Makati which today houses the main office of Wyeth Philippines Inc. Currently, Wyeth Philippines Inc. s one of the leading companies in producing pharmaceutical and nutritional products. The proponents chose the company because the proposed system will be very beneficial to the sales managers of the nutritional division in monitoring their individual accounts’ inventory and sales off take. Upon running the system, it will ask for password input, then you will be directed to the homepage wherein there will be four primary buttons to choose from. The first one is labeled Beginning inventory, the second one will be the Purchases and the third one will be the Ending inventory and lastly is the Generate Report button.

Clicking the Beginning button will redirect you to a new window wherein there will be command buttons to choose from and these are the Upload from Data button, Edit button and Delete button. On the other hand, clicking Purchases button will redirect you to a new window wherein there will be another command buttons to choose from where to Upload From Data button, Edit button and Delete button. The same goes with the Purchases button and lastly, the Generate Report button will open a window that has new options for the users hether to generate report for the sales off take, purchases, ending inventory and to download report. Reasons for the Choice of Project: The project is made to design, develop and implement a system that will make the user’s job easier and less time consuming as request by the client. The Key Account Managers are often approaching sales information staffs to request for some sales report which should be done by them alone, thus taking some of the staff’s time. Through the proposed system, the managers will be able to monitor their stocks easily as well as generate the reports on their own.

Importance of the Study: The proposed system will help the Key Account Managers of Wyeth Philippines Inc. to be more efficient and effective in monitoring their accounts. The inventory and stocks will be easily updated and managed on the system, thus giving them an idea whether to order stocks for their accounts, whether the products are not sold, and many more. Target Users/Beneficiaries: The course System Analysis and Design is specialized to convert business problems using Information Technology solutions. The proposed system will be beneficial to different users.

The Key Account Managers of the Wyeth Philippines Inc. are the main beneficiaries of the proposed system; they handle the major accounts such as SM, Robinsons, Puregold and Rustans. The Special Distributor Managers of the Wyeth Philippines Inc. are the minor beneficiaries; they handle the product’s special distributor companies which distribute the products on small and medium enterprise. The Wyeth Philippines Inc, as a whole will benefit because its employees will be more productive and more efficient in the field of business and marketing strategies. Similarities with any Previous Study/Project:

The study entitled “Golden Inventory System (2011)”, is an advanced inventory software designed for wholesale and manufacture businesses. It is developed by Quartex LLC software development company. The system is made for any business that desires a complete control over stock levels and inventory tracking. This inventory software can be used either as a simple inventory control system or a complete manufacturing solution. This is similar to our proposed system because they are both designed to have a complete control over stock levels and inventory tracking.

Our system has an advantage because it can provide report for the users the Golden Inventory cannot do so. Computerized Sales And Inventory With the use of the Computerized Sales and Inventory System, it can manage the process of the business as well as the daily transactions. It helps the personnel to do their jobs at the right time. It is much easier to do their reports and other communication for their customer. Having computers in the workplace has enabled the business to more efficiently. Sales and Inventory control systems maintain information about activities within firms that ensure the delivery of products to customers.

Software Development Tool/s to be used: Visual Studio 2010. Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB. NET (via Visual Basic . NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2010). It has been chosen by the proponents because the proposed system will be developed using Visual Basic .

NET. Adobe Photoshop CS5. The proponents will use this application for editing graphics that will be used in the proposed system. Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped (or just Shopped) have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop, or any image manipulating program. “Photoshop” is also used as a noun to refer to image editing programs in general. Scope and Limitations Separate page Proponents: Approved by Committee: Adviser Committee Member Committee Member College Dean