Day: August 9, 2017

Vitamin C Content

Vitamin C Content

OBJECTIVE ?To investigate the vitamin C content of different fruit juices. ?To identify which fruit juices has higher vitamin C content and the lowest vitamin C content. ?To determine the standard curve of vitamin C based on percentage of vitamin C. ?To differentiate between fresh juices and carton juices. ?To consider the reliability and validity of the results. PROBLEM STATEMENT Which type of fruit juices has the most vitamin C content? HYPOTHESIS ?The smaller the amount of the fruit juices to decolourise DCPIP solution, the higher vitamin C content in the fruit juices itself. The fresh orange juice gains the highest vitamin C content than other juice (carton juice, fresh lime and fresh lemon). NULL HYPOTHESIS All type of fruit juices has the same value of vitamin C content. VARIABLES Manipulated Variable: Type of fruits juice used Responding Variable: Volume of Fruit juices decolourise DCPIP solution Control Variable : volume of DCPIP solution, Concentration of DCPIP solution, INTRODUCTION Vitamins are organic compounds that are required in very small amounts (micronutrient compound) for maintaining good health.

Vitamins are not energy providing foods. Vitamins are divided into water soluble vitamin and fat soluble vitamin. Water soluble vitamin include vitamin B and vitamin C while fat soluble vitamin include Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K. Every Vitamin that we consume has its ability to function well in our body system which acts as supplement for our health. Diagram 1. 1 show structural formula of ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is one of the quite famous vitamins among the vitamins. Due to the presence of vitamin C content in majority of fruits such as lemons, oranges, limes.

Vitamin C also known as Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which is disturb the activity of the free radical. Free radical can affect the cell membrane by alter it and change the structure of DNA. Free radical can increase risk of many health problem such as cancer and heart disease. With the function as antioxidants, it can neutralise free radical and reduce the damage that they made. Because of its water soluble properties leftover vitamin C will pass through the urine and that`s why we need it regularly in our diet and one more important fact that our body do not able to produce it, so we need to consume it.

Also known as ascorbic acid which is the enolic form of 3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone. It can be prepared by synthesis from glucose, or extracted from plant sources such as rose hips, blackcurrants or citrus fruits. Example of fruit contain vitamin C viphealth. org Diagram 1. 2Example of supplement of Vitamin C bestlooker. com Diagram 1. 3 Other than that, vitamin C also has other function besides being antioxidants. It also triggers the formation of collagen. Collagen is protein which an important part for the repairing body tissue in our body. Without it the function healing in the body will slow down.

Repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth also the job of vitamin C. Besides collagen, it also form important protein for making of skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Cholesterol level in our body can be reduced by taking Vitamin C especially in juice. This can be explained by the simple mechanism which is by increasing the function of liver to convert cholesterol to bile acid. It also reduces oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein and increasing LDL receptor. Thus as the effect, LDL cholesterol can be eliminated from blood rapidly.

Vitamin C also can reduce risks of Alzheimer when taking together with vitamin E. Vitamin C facilitates the fabrication of white blood cells which ruin bacteria and viruses. Vitamin C can also lessen the duration and signs of a cold; help decelerate or prevent cataracts. Vitamin C also had its own side effect if we take it excessively, as it will eliminated from the body and can caused other effect such as kidney stones, nausea, gastritis and diarrhea. Insuffiency of vitamin C give muscle weakness, bleeding gums, joint and muscle pains, fatigue and leg rashes.

Long-term deficiency can result in scurvy. People with scurvy lose weight and are easily fatigued. Orange juice Oranges are juicy, sour-sweet tasty citrus fruits in the world. They have appearances of brightly colour outer rind covering the smooth pulpy fruit. They are from a group of citrus fruits called the hesperidia. Oranges are modified berries, containing volatile oil glands in pits. The pulpy mass is made up of carpel, which have lots of fluid-filled vesicles Oranges are a fine source of fiber which is fat-free, sodium free and cholesterol free.

With the presence of thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, magnesium and copper increase orange nutritional value. Orange juice triggers in absorption of medicines by the body in order to help in the biochemical and physiological effects of the medicine. Lime Juice Diagram 1. 4 show lime fruits from http://www. organicfacts. net/ Lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia) also one of the well known vitamin C contributes. Lime juice has much benefit to us. For example it can reduce cold and dry cough if we take together with tea. Other than that, it also beneficial for digestive.

It’s also properly cure diseases such as colon cancer, cholera, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, fatigue, heart diseases. Toxic substances and deposit precipitate can be eliminated as it rich of potassium ion. Finally the more important is stops prostrate growth (very common in males above 40) and made clear blockage of urine due to deposit of calcium in the urinary tract. Lime also had another special characteristic beside vitamin C which is flavanoid (Limonoids such as Limonin Glucoside). it can help to heal peptic and oral ulcer with aid of anti oxidant, anti carcinogen, detoxifying.

Other than that,lime juice also can cure other illness and problem such as constipation,gout,weight loss,skin care,eye care and the others. Lemon Juice Diagram 1. 5 shows lemon juice. krizzyla. blogspot. com Lemon juice also can be categorised as one of the important citrus fruits. Everybody loves it. It belongs to belongs to the family of Rutaceae of the genus and its own scientific name is Citrus limon. Lemon juice can function well to heal problem or illness such as fever, dental care,indigestion,constipation. It also can prevent throat infection due to antibacterial properties. Vitamin C found in lemon juice also able to aintain enough calcium for body development and strong bone. Drinking lemon juice on an everyday basis can encourage the function liver. DCPIP (2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol) solution is one of the indicators to determine the concentration of vitamin C content in the fruit juices beside using iodine with titration. With the multifunction of vitamin c as redactor which is repel electron. Vice versa to DCPIP solution is strong oxidator, so it can take electron. Its characteristic of blue chemical compound that can show presence of vitamin C in acid environment, the DCPIP gets a pink colour.

Vitamin C, which is the reducing agent, is present; the blue (or pink) dye gets colourless. This experiment is carried out to investigate the Vitamin C content in various fruit juices, in can or the freshly squeezed. The lower volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise the blue DCPIP solution, the higher is the Vitamin C content in the fruit. Higher Vitamin C content may be found in citrus fruits such as lemon and orange. Citrus fruits are acidic; therefore this may explain why the Vitamin C content in citrus fruits is higher compared to others.

The smaller volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise the DCPIP solution means that the DCPIP solution is reduced at a faster rate; thus it can predict that the concentration of hydrogen ions from the ascorbic acid in the fruit is higher. APPARATUS Pipette, syringe, burette, 11 boiling tubes, 50 mL beakers, MATERIALS 1% DCPIP solution, distilled water,Fresh orange juice,lemon juice,lime juice,juice carton of orange,lime and lemon, Vitamin C tablet 100 g. METHODOLOGY PROCEDURE 1 – STANDARD CURVE PROCEDURE 1. 100 mL of water is measured and transfer into a beaker. . 1 g of vitamin c tablet is dissolved to prepare 1 % of vitamin C solution. 3. 0. 5 mL 0. 1% of DCPIP solution is placed into a boiling tube by using a syringe. 4. 3 mL of vitamin c is sucked into another syringe and is added drop by drop into DCPIP solution. 5. The mixture is shaken gently. The vitamin C is added continuously until the blue colour of DCPIP solution decolourised. The volume of vitamin C is recorded in a table. 6. Step 1 to 5 is repeated by using 0. 75 g, 0. 5 g, 0. 25 g and 0. 125 g to prepare 0. 75 %, 0. 5 %, 0. 25 % and 0. 25 % of vitamin C solution. 7. The graph of standard curve of vitamin C is drawn. PROCEDURE 2 TO DETERMINE VITAMIN C CONTENT IN FRESHLY PREPARED FRUIT JUICES AND CARTON FRUIT JUICES 1. Oranges, limes and lemons is cut and squeezed into 3 different beakers (labelled). 2. 0. 5 mL 0. 1% of DCPIP solution is placed into a boiling tube by using a syringe. 3. 3 mL of fresh orange juices is sucked into another syringe and is added drop by drop into DCPIP solution. 4. The mixture is shaken gently. An orange juice is added continuously until DCPIP solution decolourised.

The volume is recorded. 5. Step 2-4 is repeated by using limes, lemons and carton juices. V = K Concentration of vitamin C (C) 6. The result is tabulated. The vitamin C concentration is calculated by using formula for each 6 sample. RESULT Concentration Of Vitamin C (%)1. 00. 750. 50. 250. 125 Volume of Concentration of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution,mL0. 20. 30. 40. 81. 2 Table 1. 1 shows different concentration of vitamin C in percentage with different of volume of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution.

Types of juice usedFresh orangeFresh limeFresh lemonOrange juiceLime juiceLemon juice Volume of fruit juice to decolourise DCPIP solution,mL0. 50. 70. 61. 32. 00. 8 Table 1. 2 shows different type of juice used with different volume of juice used to decolourise DCPIP solution Graph 1. 1 shows Standard curve The Concentration of Vitamin C against Volume of Concentration of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution,mL .g Graph 1. 1 shows Standard curve The Concentration of Vitamin C against Volume of Concentration of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution,mL Find the gradient of the graph by using tangent method. = ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬0. 72-0. 36 0. 64-0. 32 = 1. 125 So k = 1. 125 Now use the value of K to calculate concentration of vitamin C content. V = K Concentration of vitamin C (C) K = Gradient of the standard curve of vitamin C C = Concentration of vitamin C content V = Volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution Types of juice usedFresh orangeFresh limeFresh lemonOrange juiceLime juiceLemon juice Volume of fruit juice to decolourise DCPIP solution,mL0. 50. 70. 61. 32. 00. 8 Concentration of vitamin C,g/mL1. 125 0. 5 = 2. 251. 125 0. 7 = 1. 611. 125 0. = 1. 881. 125 1. 3 = 0. 871. 125 2. 0 = 0. 561. 125 0. 8 = 1. 41 Table 1. 2 shows different type of juice used with different volume of juice used to decolourise DCPIP solution and the concentration of vitamin C content. DISCUSSION The objective of the experiment is to investigate the standard curve of the vitamin C concentration. The experiment was conducted by prepared 5 different concentration of vitamin C which is 1. 0%, 0. 75 %, 0. 5 %, 0. 25 % and 0. 125 % and every concentration is tested into DCPIP solution by using syringe. The reading varies according to each concentration from 0. 25% until 1. 0%. After all the data collected, the standard curve of the graph is drawn. The preparation of standarad curve is important to make the constant for concentration of vitamin C. Based on the theory the standard curve of the vitamin C is when the concentration of vitamin C is highest, the volume of vitamin C needed to decolourise DCPIP solution is lowest and vice versa. So based on the table 1. 1 the shows the result of different vitamin V concentration on effect the volume of vitamin C needed to decolourise DCPIP solutions. On the concentration of vitamin C of 0. 125 %, the volume of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution indicate the reading of 1. 2 mL. This the highest volume of Vitamin C solution to decolourise DCPIP. This shows that the lowest concentration of vitamin C has the lowest concentration of vitamin C content.. We proceed to the next concentration which is 0. 25% indicate the volume of 0. 8 mL and its consistent down nicely to 0. 4 at 0. 5 %.. At 0. 75 % and 1. 0 % the reading indicates are 0. 3m L and 0. 2mL. The trend of the graph was decreasing from 0. 125% to 1. 000% concentration of vitamin C.

Table 2 shows the concentration of vitamin C of different freshly squeezed juices based on volume needed to decolourise DCPIP solution and the orange, lime and lemon juice carton. There were three types of fruit juices used in this experiment, which are orange juice, lemon juice and lime juice. In this experiment we want to study which of the juices contain highest vitamin c concentration and differentiate between freshly juiced and carton juiced. Based on the table, Fresh juice oranges indicate the reading of volume of 0. 5 mL to decolourise DCPIP solution and the lowest among other fruit juices and carton juices.

Its concentration of vitamin C also the highest among the others which is 2. 25g/mL. Other than that, Fresh lemon indicates the second lower of volume to decolourise DCPIP solution by 0. 6mL and the concentration of vitamin C is 1. 88 g/mL and followed by fresh lime which is has volume the highest to decolourise DCPIP solution which is 0. 7 mL and the concentration also the lowest which is 1. 66g/mL. We go forward to our next result for carton juices. For the carton juices we can see that from the result clearly show that lemon juice is the lowest volume of vitamin C to decolourise DCPIP solution among the other carton juice which is 0. mL and its concentration is 1. 41g/mL. Other than that, The second lowest come to the orange juice carton which is indicate the reading of 1. 3mL and its concentration of vitamin C is 0. 87g/mL. Lastly the highest volume of vitamin C to decolourise fall to the lime juice which is indicate reading of volume to decolourise DCPIP solution is 2. 0 mL and its concentration is the lowest which is 0. 56g/mL. All these show that Freshly juices is more vitamin C content when compare with carton juices.

This result shows that vitamin C is susceptible to change and unstable or that the vitamin C can break down easily if exposed to high temperatures or is kept for a long time on a shelf. The experiment and results showed that vitamin C is more abundant in fresh fruit juices. This was true for all the juices tested except for lemon. Therefore, it is safe to say that fresh fruit juices tend to contain more vitamin C than carton juices. Safety Precaution ?Wear safety goggles all the times even the chemical is not danger in order to practice safety value in what matter state.

It also can be dangerous when spurted onto eye. ?Do not taste or ingest any of chemical substances such DCPIP solutions which is dangerous for the body because maybe contaminated with bacteria surrounding. ?Avoid contact with DCPIP solution which can stain the clothes and skin and for protective layer is to wear lab coat. ?Take care with fragile materials such as burette which is easily broken. ?Take care while using the knife to cut the freshly fruit juice. ANOTHER FACTOR THAT AFFECT VITAMIN C CONTENT IN JUICES There are many factors that affect vitamin C content in fruit juices.

As we take example orange fruits. Orange fruits are more sensitive to light, heat and air. In air, oranges is more exposed to oxidise which can reduce the vitamin c content rapidly in the fruits. Other than that, It also easily harmed during food preparation by method of boiling, cooking or even the during the chopping also can affect vitamin C content. By cooking process, the reason why the vitamin C will reach out because water soluble vitamin dissolve into the cooking water and in the cooking process, the plant cell less permeable, so more easy ions of vitamin C will reach out.

Usually immature fruits contain highest level of vitamin C content and keep decrease during ripening process. It’s different during late maturing types which is lower than early maturing varieties. High nitrogen fertilizer rates also affect Vitamin C level by lowering it and last but not least Proper Potassium level also need to raise good vitamin C level. Limitation In this experiment there are several limitations that avoid us to get accurate result. One of this limitation is the presence of suspension when pour fruit juices into DCPIP solution.

In this condition will make harder to make sure DCPIP completely decolourise. This factor totally out of the way of experiment. Other than that, before we entered the lab, all the fruit juiced already prepared in the table by lab assistant. So,most probably the fruit juice already more exposed to the air and be oxidised. So maybe the amount of vitamin C content also can be reduced by that method of preparing and reduce quality of experiment. Besides that, there is also an air bubble in the syringe without we realised it which is can affect the accuracy of the experiment totally.

The small mistake by not covering the fruit juices after we prepared due to lack of apparatus to do so. When we don’t make it, so more easily the squeezed fresh juice oxidised to the air. Another limitation is the presence of fruit residues in juices. Since we did not sieve the fruit juices, some residues may have taken some space in syringe and this reduce the reliability of this experiment. Therefore, repetitions of experiments are important so that we will have several readings and average volume can be calculated in order to obtain more accurate reading. CONCLUSION Every fruit has different concentration of vitamin C.

The smaller the volume of fruit juice needed to decolourise DCPIP solution, the higher is the vitamin C content in the fruit juice. The volume of lemon juice in carton needed to decolourise blue DCPIP solution is the lowest among the carton juice while fresh orange juice is the lowest volume needed to decolourise DCPIP solution among the other fresh juices and carton juices. REFERENCE ?http://www. umm. edu ?http://bestlooker. com ?http://www. viphealth. org ?http://www. 3dchem. com ?http://www. nlm. nih. govk ?http://www. buzzle. com/articles/orange-nutritional-facts. htm